Realtime reading from a Streaming using Computer Vision

This week we’re going to extend one of our earlier posts & trying to read an entire text from streaming using computer vision. If you want to view the previous post, please click the following link.

But, before we proceed, why don’t we view the demo first?

Demo

Architecture:

Let us understand the architecture flow –

Architecture flow

The above diagram shows that the application, which uses the Open-CV, analyzes individual frames from the source & extracts the complete text within the video & displays it on top of the target screen besides prints the same in the console.

Python Packages:

pip install imutils==0.5.4
pip install matplotlib==3.5.2
pip install numpy==1.21.6
pip install opencv-contrib-python==4.6.0.66
pip install opencv-contrib-python-headless==4.6.0.66
pip install opencv-python==4.6.0.66
pip install opencv-python-headless==4.6.0.66
pip install pandas==1.3.5
pip install Pillow==9.1.1
pip install pytesseract==0.3.9
pip install python-dateutil==2.8.2

CODE:

Let us now understand the code. For this use case, we will only discuss three python scripts. However, we need more than these three. However, we have already discussed them in some of the early posts. Hence, we will skip them here.

  • clsReadingTextFromStream.py (This is the main class of python script that will extract the text from the WebCAM streaming in real-time.)


##################################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE ####
#### Written On: 22-Jul-2022 ####
#### Modified On 25-Jul-2022 ####
#### ####
#### Objective: This is the main class of ####
#### python script that will invoke the ####
#### extraction of texts from a WebCAM. ####
#### ####
##################################################
# Importing necessary packages
from clsConfig import clsConfig as cf
from imutils.object_detection import non_max_suppression
import numpy as np
import pytesseract
import imutils
import time
import cv2
import time
###############################################
### Global Section ###
###############################################
# Two output layer names for the text detector model
lNames = cf.conf['LAYER_DET']
# Tesseract OCR text param values
strVal = "-l " + str(cf.conf['LANG']) + " –oem " + str(cf.conf['OEM_VAL']) + " –psm " + str(cf.conf['PSM_VAL']) + ""
config = (strVal)
###############################################
### End of Global Section ###
###############################################
class clsReadingTextFromStream:
def __init__(self):
self.sep = str(cf.conf['SEP'])
self.Curr_Path = str(cf.conf['INIT_PATH'])
self.CacheL = int(cf.conf['CACHE_LIM'])
self.modelPath = str(cf.conf['MODEL_PATH']) + str(cf.conf['MODEL_FILE_NAME'])
self.minConf = float(cf.conf['MIN_CONFIDENCE'])
self.wt = int(cf.conf['WIDTH'])
self.ht = int(cf.conf['HEIGHT'])
self.pad = float(cf.conf['PADDING'])
self.title = str(cf.conf['TITLE'])
self.Otitle = str(cf.conf['ORIG_TITLE'])
self.drawTag = cf.conf['DRAW_TAG']
self.aRange = int(cf.conf['ASCII_RANGE'])
self.sParam = cf.conf['SUBTRACT_PARAM']
def findBoundBox(self, boxes, res, rW, rH, orig, origW, origH, pad):
try:
# Loop over the bounding boxes
for (spX, spY, epX, epY) in boxes:
# Scale the bounding box coordinates based on the respective
# ratios
spX = int(spX * rW)
spY = int(spY * rH)
epX = int(epX * rW)
epY = int(epY * rH)
# To obtain a better OCR of the text we can potentially
# apply a bit of padding surrounding the bounding box.
# And, computing the deltas in both the x and y directions
dX = int((epX spX) * pad)
dY = int((epY spY) * pad)
# Apply padding to each side of the bounding box, respectively
spX = max(0, spX dX)
spY = max(0, spY dY)
epX = min(origW, epX + (dX * 2))
epY = min(origH, epY + (dY * 2))
# Extract the actual padded ROI
roi = orig[spY:epY, spX:epX]
# Choose the proper OCR Config
text = pytesseract.image_to_string(roi, config=config)
# Add the bounding box coordinates and OCR'd text to the list
# of results
res.append(((spX, spY, epX, epY), text))
# Sort the results bounding box coordinates from top to bottom
res = sorted(res, key=lambda r:r[0][1])
return res
except Exception as e:
x = str(e)
print(x)
return res
def predictText(self, imgScore, imgGeo):
try:
minConf = self.minConf
# Initializing the bounding box rectangles & confidence score by
# extracting the rows & columns from the imgScore volume.
(numRows, numCols) = imgScore.shape[2:4]
rects = []
confScore = []
for y in range(0, numRows):
# Extract the imgScore probabilities to derive potential
# bounding box coordinates that surround text
imgScoreData = imgScore[0, 0, y]
xVal0 = imgGeo[0, 0, y]
xVal1 = imgGeo[0, 1, y]
xVal2 = imgGeo[0, 2, y]
xVal3 = imgGeo[0, 3, y]
anglesData = imgGeo[0, 4, y]
for x in range(0, numCols):
# If our score does not have sufficient probability,
# ignore it
if imgScoreData[x] < minConf:
continue
# Compute the offset factor as our resulting feature
# maps will be 4x smaller than the input frame
(offX, offY) = (x * 4.0, y * 4.0)
# Extract the rotation angle for the prediction and
# then compute the sin and cosine
angle = anglesData[x]
cos = np.cos(angle)
sin = np.sin(angle)
# Derive the width and height of the bounding box from
# imgGeo
h = xVal0[x] + xVal2[x]
w = xVal1[x] + xVal3[x]
# Compute both the starting and ending (x, y)-coordinates
# for the text prediction bounding box
epX = int(offX + (cos * xVal1[x]) + (sin * xVal2[x]))
epY = int(offY (sin * xVal1[x]) + (cos * xVal2[x]))
spX = int(epX w)
spY = int(epY h)
# Adding bounding box coordinates and probability score
# to the respective lists
rects.append((spX, spY, epX, epY))
confScore.append(imgScoreData[x])
# return a tuple of the bounding boxes and associated confScore
return (rects, confScore)
except Exception as e:
x = str(e)
print(x)
rects = []
confScore = []
return (rects, confScore)
def processStream(self, debugInd, var):
try:
sep = self.sep
Curr_Path = self.Curr_Path
CacheL = self.CacheL
modelPath = self.modelPath
minConf = self.minConf
wt = self.wt
ht = self.ht
pad = self.pad
title = self.title
Otitle = self.Otitle
drawTag = self.drawTag
aRange = self.aRange
sParam = self.sParam
val = 0
# Initialize the video stream and allow the camera sensor to warm up
print("[INFO] Starting video stream…")
cap = cv2.VideoCapture(0)
# Loading the pre-trained text detector
print("[INFO] Loading Text Detector…")
net = cv2.dnn.readNet(modelPath)
# Loop over the frames from the video stream
while True:
try:
# Grab the frame from our video stream and resize it
success, frame = cap.read()
orig = frame.copy()
(origH, origW) = frame.shape[:2]
# Setting new width and height and then determine the ratio in change
# for both the width and height
(newW, newH) = (wt, ht)
rW = origW / float(newW)
rH = origH / float(newH)
# Resize the frame and grab the new frame dimensions
frame = cv2.resize(frame, (newW, newH))
(H, W) = frame.shape[:2]
# Construct a blob from the frame and then perform a forward pass of
# the model to obtain the two output layer sets
blob = cv2.dnn.blobFromImage(frame, 1.0, (W, H), sParam, swapRB=True, crop=False)
net.setInput(blob)
(confScore, imgGeo) = net.forward(lNames)
# Decode the predictions, then apply non-maxima suppression to
# suppress weak, overlapping bounding boxes
(rects, confidences) = self.predictText(confScore, imgGeo)
boxes = non_max_suppression(np.array(rects), probs=confidences)
# Initialize the list of results
res = []
# Getting BoundingBox boundaries
res = self.findBoundBox(boxes, res, rW, rH, orig, origW, origH, pad)
for ((spX, spY, epX, epY), text) in res:
# Display the text OCR by using Tesseract APIs
print("Reading Text::")
print("=" *60)
print(text)
print("=" *60)
# Removing the non-ASCII text so it can draw the text on the frame
# using OpenCV, then draw the text and a bounding box surrounding
# the text region of the input frame
text = "".join([c if ord(c) < aRange else "" for c in text]).strip()
output = orig.copy()
cv2.rectangle(output, (spX, spY), (epX, epY), drawTag, 2)
cv2.putText(output, text, (spX, spY 20), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1.2, drawTag, 3)
# Show the output frame
cv2.imshow(title, output)
#cv2.imshow(Otitle, frame)
# If the `q` key was pressed, break from the loop
if cv2.waitKey(1) == ord('q'):
break
val = 0
except Exception as e:
x = str(e)
print(x)
val = 1
# Performing cleanup at the end
cap.release()
cv2.destroyAllWindows()
return val
except Exception as e:
x = str(e)
print('Error:', x)
return 1

Please find the key snippet from the above script –

# Two output layer names for the text detector model

lNames = cf.conf['LAYER_DET']

# Tesseract OCR text param values

strVal = "-l " + str(cf.conf['LANG']) + " --oem " + str(cf.conf['OEM_VAL']) + " --psm " + str(cf.conf['PSM_VAL']) + ""
config = (strVal)

The first line contains the two output layers’ names for the text detector model. Among them, the first one indicates the outcome possibilities & the second one use to derive the bounding box coordinates of the predicted text.

The second line contains various options for the tesseract APIs. You need to understand the opportunities in detail to make them work. These are the essential options for our use case –

  • Language – The intended language, for example, English, Spanish, Hindi, Bengali, etc.
  • OEM flag – In this case, the application will use 4 to indicate LSTM neural net model for OCR.
  • OEM Value – In this case, the selected value is 7, indicating that the application treats the ROI as a single line of text.

For more details, please refer to the config file.

print("[INFO] Loading Text Detector...")
net = cv2.dnn.readNet(modelPath)

The above lines bring the already created model & load it to memory for evaluation.

# Setting new width and height and then determine the ratio in change
# for both the width and height
(newW, newH) = (wt, ht)
rW = origW / float(newW)
rH = origH / float(newH)

# Resize the frame and grab the new frame dimensions
frame = cv2.resize(frame, (newW, newH))
(H, W) = frame.shape[:2]

# Construct a blob from the frame and then perform a forward pass of
# the model to obtain the two output layer sets
blob = cv2.dnn.blobFromImage(frame, 1.0, (W, H), sParam, swapRB=True, crop=False)
net.setInput(blob)
(confScore, imgGeo) = net.forward(lNames)

# Decode the predictions, then apply non-maxima suppression to
# suppress weak, overlapping bounding boxes
(rects, confidences) = self.predictText(confScore, imgGeo)
boxes = non_max_suppression(np.array(rects), probs=confidences)

The above lines are more of preparing individual frames to get the bounding box by resizing the height & width followed by a forward pass of the model to obtain two output layer sets. And then apply the non-maxima suppression to remove the weak, overlapping bounding box by interpreting the prediction. In short, this will identify the potential text region & put the bounding box surrounding it.

# Initialize the list of results
res = []

# Getting BoundingBox boundaries
res = self.findBoundBox(boxes, res, rW, rH, orig, origW, origH, pad)

The above function will create the bounding box surrounding the predicted text regions. Also, we will capture the expected text inside the result variable.

for (spX, spY, epX, epY) in boxes:
  # Scale the bounding box coordinates based on the respective
  # ratios
  spX = int(spX * rW)
  spY = int(spY * rH)
  epX = int(epX * rW)
  epY = int(epY * rH)

  # To obtain a better OCR of the text we can potentially
  # apply a bit of padding surrounding the bounding box.
  # And, computing the deltas in both the x and y directions
  dX = int((epX - spX) * pad)
  dY = int((epY - spY) * pad)

  # Apply padding to each side of the bounding box, respectively
  spX = max(0, spX - dX)
  spY = max(0, spY - dY)
  epX = min(origW, epX + (dX * 2))
  epY = min(origH, epY + (dY * 2))

  # Extract the actual padded ROI
  roi = orig[spY:epY, spX:epX]

Now, the application will scale the bounding boxes based on the previously computed ratio for actual text recognition. In this process, the application also padded the bounding boxes & then extracted the padded region of interest.

# Choose the proper OCR Config
text = pytesseract.image_to_string(roi, config=config)

# Add the bounding box coordinates and OCR'd text to the list
# of results
res.append(((spX, spY, epX, epY), text))

Using OCR options, the application extracts the text within the video frame & adds that to the res list.

# Sort the results bounding box coordinates from top to bottom
res = sorted(res, key=lambda r:r[0][1])

It then sends a sorted output to the primary calling functions.

for ((spX, spY, epX, epY), text) in res:
  # Display the text OCR by using Tesseract APIs
  print("Reading Text::")
  print("=" *60)
  print(text)
  print("=" *60)

  # Removing the non-ASCII text so it can draw the text on the frame
  # using OpenCV, then draw the text and a bounding box surrounding
  # the text region of the input frame
  text = "".join([c if ord(c) < aRange else "" for c in text]).strip()
  output = orig.copy()

  cv2.rectangle(output, (spX, spY), (epX, epY), drawTag, 2)
  cv2.putText(output, text, (spX, spY - 20), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1.2, drawTag, 3)

  # Show the output frame
  cv2.imshow(title, output)

Finally, it fetches the potential text region along with the text & then prints on top of the source video. Also, it removed some non-printable characters during this time to avoid any cryptic texts.

  • readingVideo.py (Main calling script.)


#####################################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE ####
#### Written On: 22-Jul-2022 ####
#### Modified On 25-Jul-2022 ####
#### ####
#### Objective: This is the main calling ####
#### python script that will invoke the ####
#### clsReadingTextFromStream class to initiate ####
#### the reading capability in real-time ####
#### & display text via Web-CAM. ####
#####################################################
# We keep the setup code in a different class as shown below.
import clsReadingTextFromStream as rtfs
from clsConfig import clsConfig as cf
import datetime
import logging
###############################################
### Global Section ###
###############################################
# Instantiating all the main class
x1 = rtfs.clsReadingTextFromStream()
###############################################
### End of Global Section ###
###############################################
def main():
try:
# Other useful variables
debugInd = 'Y'
var = datetime.datetime.now().strftime("%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S")
var1 = datetime.datetime.now()
print('Start Time: ', str(var))
# End of useful variables
# Initiating Log Class
general_log_path = str(cf.conf['LOG_PATH'])
# Enabling Logging Info
logging.basicConfig(filename=general_log_path + 'readingTextFromVideo.log', level=logging.INFO)
print('Started reading text from videos!')
# Execute all the pass
r1 = x1.processStream(debugInd, var)
if (r1 == 0):
print('Successfully read text from the Live Stream!')
else:
print('Failed to read text from the Live Stream!')
var2 = datetime.datetime.now()
c = var2 var1
minutes = c.total_seconds() / 60
print('Total difference in minutes: ', str(minutes))
print('End Time: ', str(var1))
except Exception as e:
x = str(e)
print('Error: ', x)
if __name__ == "__main__":
main()

view raw

readingVideo.py

hosted with ❤ by GitHub

Please find the key snippet –

# Instantiating all the main class

x1 = rtfs.clsReadingTextFromStream()

# Execute all the pass
r1 = x1.processStream(debugInd, var)

if (r1 == 0):
    print('Successfully read text from the Live Stream!')
else:
    print('Failed to read text from the Live Stream!')

The above lines instantiate the main calling class & then invoke the function to get the desired extracted text from the live streaming video if that is successful.

FOLDER STRUCTURE:

Here is the folder structure that contains all the files & directories in MAC O/S –

You will get the complete codebase in the following Github link.

Unfortunately, I cannot upload the model due to it’s size. I will share on the need basis.

I’ll bring some more exciting topic in the coming days from the Python verse. Please share & subscribe my post & let me know your feedback.

Till then, Happy Avenging! 🙂

Note: All the data & scenario posted here are representational data & scenarios & available over the internet & for educational purpose only. Some of the images (except my photo) that we’ve used are available over the net. We don’t claim the ownership of these images. There is an always room for improvement & especially the prediction quality.

Live visual reading using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) through Python-based machine-learning application.

This week we’re planning to touch on one of the exciting posts of visually reading characters from WebCAM & predict the letters using CNN methods. Before we dig deep, why don’t we see the demo run first?

Demo

Isn’t it fascinating? As we can see, the computer can record events and read like humans. And, thanks to the brilliant packages available in Python, which can help us predict the correct letter out of an Image.


What do we need to test it out?

  1. Preferably an external WebCAM.
  2. A moderate or good Laptop to test out this.
  3. Python 
  4. And a few other packages that we’ll mention next block.

What Python packages do we need?

Some of the critical packages that we must need to test out this application are –

cmake==3.22.1
dlib==19.19.0
face-recognition==1.3.0
face-recognition-models==0.3.0
imutils==0.5.3
jsonschema==4.4.0
keras==2.7.0
Keras-Preprocessing==1.1.2
matplotlib==3.5.1
matplotlib-inline==0.1.3
oauthlib==3.1.1
opencv-contrib-python==4.1.2.30
opencv-contrib-python-headless==4.4.0.46
opencv-python==4.5.5.62
opencv-python-headless==4.5.5.62
pickleshare==0.7.5
Pillow==9.0.0
python-dateutil==2.8.2
requests==2.27.1
requests-oauthlib==1.3.0
scikit-image==0.19.1
scikit-learn==1.0.2
tensorboard==2.7.0
tensorboard-data-server==0.6.1
tensorboard-plugin-wit==1.8.1
tensorflow==2.7.0
tensorflow-estimator==2.7.0
tensorflow-io-gcs-filesystem==0.23.1
tqdm==4.62.3

What is CNN?

In deep learning, a convolutional neural network (CNN/ConvNet) is a class of deep neural networks most commonly applied to analyze visual imagery.

Different Steps of CNN

We can understand from the above picture that a CNN generally takes an image as input. The neural network analyzes each pixel separately. The weights and biases of the model are then tweaked to detect the desired letters (In our use case) from the image. Like other algorithms, the data also has to pass through pre-processing stage. However, a CNN needs relatively less pre-processing than most other Deep Learning algorithms.

If you want to know more about this, there is an excellent article on CNN with some on-point animations explaining this concept. Please read it here.

Where do we get the data sets for our testing?

For testing, we are fortunate enough to have Kaggle with us. We have received a wide variety of sample data, which you can get from here.


Our use-case:

Architecture

From the above diagram, one can see that the python application will consume a live video feed of any random letters (both printed & handwritten) & predict the character as part of the machine learning model that we trained.


Code:

  1. clsConfig.py (Configuration file for the entire application.)


################################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE ####
#### Written On: 15-May-2020 ####
#### Modified On: 28-Dec-2021 ####
#### ####
#### Objective: This script is a config ####
#### file, contains all the keys for ####
#### Machine-Learning & streaming dashboard.####
#### ####
################################################
import os
import platform as pl
class clsConfig(object):
Curr_Path = os.path.dirname(os.path.realpath(__file__))
os_det = pl.system()
if os_det == "Windows":
sep = '\\'
else:
sep = '/'
conf = {
'APP_ID': 1,
'ARCH_DIR': Curr_Path + sep + 'arch' + sep,
'PROFILE_PATH': Curr_Path + sep + 'profile' + sep,
'LOG_PATH': Curr_Path + sep + 'log' + sep,
'REPORT_PATH': Curr_Path + sep + 'report',
'FILE_NAME': Curr_Path + sep + 'Data' + sep + 'A_Z_Handwritten_Data.csv',
'SRC_PATH': Curr_Path + sep + 'data' + sep,
'APP_DESC_1': 'Old Video Enhancement!',
'DEBUG_IND': 'N',
'INIT_PATH': Curr_Path,
'SUBDIR': 'data',
'SEP': sep,
'testRatio':0.2,
'valRatio':0.2,
'epochsVal':8,
'activationType':'relu',
'activationType2':'softmax',
'numOfClasses':26,
'kernelSize'😦3, 3),
'poolSize'😦2, 2),
'filterVal1':32,
'filterVal2':64,
'filterVal3':128,
'stridesVal':2,
'monitorVal':'val_loss',
'paddingVal1':'same',
'paddingVal2':'valid',
'reshapeVal':28,
'reshapeVal1'😦28,28),
'patienceVal1':1,
'patienceVal2':2,
'sleepTime':3,
'sleepTime1':6,
'factorVal':0.2,
'learningRateVal':0.001,
'minDeltaVal':0,
'minLrVal':0.0001,
'verboseFlag':0,
'modeInd':'auto',
'shuffleVal':100,
'DenkseVal1':26,
'DenkseVal2':64,
'DenkseVal3':128,
'predParam':9,
'word_dict':{0:'A',1:'B',2:'C',3:'D',4:'E',5:'F',6:'G',7:'H',8:'I',9:'J',10:'K',11:'L',12:'M',13:'N',14:'O',15:'P',16:'Q',17:'R',18:'S',19:'T',20:'U',21:'V',22:'W',23:'X', 24:'Y',25:'Z'},
'width':640,
'height':480,
'imgSize': (32,32),
'threshold': 0.45,
'imgDimension': (400, 440),
'imgSmallDim': (7, 7),
'imgMidDim': (28, 28),
'reshapeParam1':1,
'reshapeParam2':28,
'colorFeed'😦0,0,130),
'colorPredict'😦0,25,255)
}

view raw

clsConfig.py

hosted with ❤ by GitHub

Important parameters that we need to follow from the above snippets are –

'testRatio':0.2,
'valRatio':0.2,
'epochsVal':8,
'activationType':'relu',
'activationType2':'softmax',
'numOfClasses':26,
'kernelSize':(3, 3),
'poolSize':(2, 2),
'word_dict':{0:'A',1:'B',2:'C',3:'D',4:'E',5:'F',6:'G',7:'H',8:'I',9:'J',10:'K',11:'L',12:'M',13:'N',14:'O',15:'P',16:'Q',17:'R',18:'S',19:'T',20:'U',21:'V',22:'W',23:'X', 24:'Y',25:'Z'},

Since we have 26 letters, we have classified it as 26 in the numOfClasses.

Since we are talking about characters, we had to come up with a process of identifying each character as numbers & then processing our entire logic. Hence, the above parameter named word_dict captured all the characters in a python dictionary & stored them. Moreover, the application translates the final number output to more appropriate characters as the prediction.

2. clsAlphabetReading.py (Main training class to teach the model to predict alphabets from visual reader.)


###############################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE ####
#### Written On: 17-Jan-2022 ####
#### Modified On 17-Jan-2022 ####
#### ####
#### Objective: This python script will ####
#### teach & perfect the model to read ####
#### visual alphabets using Convolutional ####
#### Neural Network (CNN). ####
###############################################
from keras.datasets import mnist
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import cv2
import numpy as np
from keras.models import Sequential
from keras.layers import Dense, Flatten, Conv2D, MaxPool2D, Dropout
from tensorflow.keras.optimizers import SGD, Adam
from keras.callbacks import ReduceLROnPlateau, EarlyStopping
from keras.utils.np_utils import to_categorical
import pandas as p
import numpy as np
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from keras.utils import np_utils
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from tqdm import tqdm_notebook
from sklearn.utils import shuffle
import pickle
import os
import platform as pl
from clsConfig import clsConfig as cf
class clsAlphabetReading:
def __init__(self):
self.sep = str(cf.conf['SEP'])
self.Curr_Path = str(cf.conf['INIT_PATH'])
self.fileName = str(cf.conf['FILE_NAME'])
self.testRatio = float(cf.conf['testRatio'])
self.valRatio = float(cf.conf['valRatio'])
self.epochsVal = int(cf.conf['epochsVal'])
self.activationType = str(cf.conf['activationType'])
self.activationType2 = str(cf.conf['activationType2'])
self.numOfClasses = int(cf.conf['numOfClasses'])
self.kernelSize = cf.conf['kernelSize']
self.poolSize = cf.conf['poolSize']
self.filterVal1 = int(cf.conf['filterVal1'])
self.filterVal2 = int(cf.conf['filterVal2'])
self.filterVal3 = int(cf.conf['filterVal3'])
self.stridesVal = int(cf.conf['stridesVal'])
self.monitorVal = str(cf.conf['monitorVal'])
self.paddingVal1 = str(cf.conf['paddingVal1'])
self.paddingVal2 = str(cf.conf['paddingVal2'])
self.reshapeVal = int(cf.conf['reshapeVal'])
self.reshapeVal1 = cf.conf['reshapeVal1']
self.patienceVal1 = int(cf.conf['patienceVal1'])
self.patienceVal2 = int(cf.conf['patienceVal2'])
self.sleepTime = int(cf.conf['sleepTime'])
self.sleepTime1 = int(cf.conf['sleepTime1'])
self.factorVal = float(cf.conf['factorVal'])
self.learningRateVal = float(cf.conf['learningRateVal'])
self.minDeltaVal = int(cf.conf['minDeltaVal'])
self.minLrVal = float(cf.conf['minLrVal'])
self.verboseFlag = int(cf.conf['verboseFlag'])
self.modeInd = str(cf.conf['modeInd'])
self.shuffleVal = int(cf.conf['shuffleVal'])
self.DenkseVal1 = int(cf.conf['DenkseVal1'])
self.DenkseVal2 = int(cf.conf['DenkseVal2'])
self.DenkseVal3 = int(cf.conf['DenkseVal3'])
self.predParam = int(cf.conf['predParam'])
self.word_dict = cf.conf['word_dict']
def applyCNN(self, X_Train, Y_Train_Catg, X_Validation, Y_Validation_Catg):
try:
testRatio = self.testRatio
epochsVal = self.epochsVal
activationType = self.activationType
activationType2 = self.activationType2
numOfClasses = self.numOfClasses
kernelSize = self.kernelSize
poolSize = self.poolSize
filterVal1 = self.filterVal1
filterVal2 = self.filterVal2
filterVal3 = self.filterVal3
stridesVal = self.stridesVal
monitorVal = self.monitorVal
paddingVal1 = self.paddingVal1
paddingVal2 = self.paddingVal2
reshapeVal = self.reshapeVal
patienceVal1 = self.patienceVal1
patienceVal2 = self.patienceVal2
sleepTime = self.sleepTime
sleepTime1 = self.sleepTime1
factorVal = self.factorVal
learningRateVal = self.learningRateVal
minDeltaVal = self.minDeltaVal
minLrVal = self.minLrVal
verboseFlag = self.verboseFlag
modeInd = self.modeInd
shuffleVal = self.shuffleVal
DenkseVal1 = self.DenkseVal1
DenkseVal2 = self.DenkseVal2
DenkseVal3 = self.DenkseVal3
model = Sequential()
model.add(Conv2D(filters=filterVal1, kernel_size=kernelSize, activation=activationType, input_shape=(28,28,1)))
model.add(MaxPool2D(pool_size=poolSize, strides=stridesVal))
model.add(Conv2D(filters=filterVal2, kernel_size=kernelSize, activation=activationType, padding = paddingVal1))
model.add(MaxPool2D(pool_size=poolSize, strides=stridesVal))
model.add(Conv2D(filters=filterVal3, kernel_size=kernelSize, activation=activationType, padding = paddingVal2))
model.add(MaxPool2D(pool_size=poolSize, strides=stridesVal))
model.add(Flatten())
model.add(Dense(DenkseVal2,activation = activationType))
model.add(Dense(DenkseVal3,activation = activationType))
model.add(Dense(DenkseVal1,activation = activationType2))
model.compile(optimizer = Adam(learning_rate=learningRateVal), loss='categorical_crossentropy', metrics=['accuracy'])
reduce_lr = ReduceLROnPlateau(monitor=monitorVal, factor=factorVal, patience=patienceVal1, min_lr=minLrVal)
early_stop = EarlyStopping(monitor=monitorVal, min_delta=minDeltaVal, patience=patienceVal2, verbose=verboseFlag, mode=modeInd)
fittedModel = model.fit(X_Train, Y_Train_Catg, epochs=epochsVal, callbacks=[reduce_lr, early_stop], validation_data = (X_Validation,Y_Validation_Catg))
return (model, fittedModel)
except Exception as e:
x = str(e)
model = Sequential()
print('Error: ', x)
return (model, model)
def trainModel(self, debugInd, var):
try:
sep = self.sep
Curr_Path = self.Curr_Path
fileName = self.fileName
epochsVal = self.epochsVal
valRatio = self.valRatio
predParam = self.predParam
testRatio = self.testRatio
reshapeVal = self.reshapeVal
numOfClasses = self.numOfClasses
sleepTime = self.sleepTime
sleepTime1 = self.sleepTime1
shuffleVal = self.shuffleVal
reshapeVal1 = self.reshapeVal1
# Dictionary for getting characters from index values
word_dict = self.word_dict
print('File Name: ', str(fileName))
# Read the data
df_HW_Alphabet = p.read_csv(fileName).astype('float32')
# Sample Data
print('Sample Data: ')
print(df_HW_Alphabet.head())
# Split data the (x – Our data) & (y – the prdict label)
x = df_HW_Alphabet.drop('0',axis = 1)
y = df_HW_Alphabet['0']
# Reshaping the data in csv file to display as an image
X_Train, X_Test, Y_Train, Y_Test = train_test_split(x, y, test_size = testRatio)
X_Train, X_Validation, Y_Train, Y_Validation = train_test_split(X_Train, Y_Train, test_size = valRatio)
X_Train = np.reshape(X_Train.values, (X_Train.shape[0], reshapeVal, reshapeVal))
X_Test = np.reshape(X_Test.values, (X_Test.shape[0], reshapeVal, reshapeVal))
X_Validation = np.reshape(X_Validation.values, (X_Validation.shape[0], reshapeVal, reshapeVal))
print("Train Data Shape: ", X_Train.shape)
print("Test Data Shape: ", X_Test.shape)
print("Validation Data shape: ", X_Validation.shape)
# Plotting the number of alphabets in the dataset
Y_Train_Num = np.int0(y)
count = np.zeros(numOfClasses, dtype='int')
for i in Y_Train_Num:
count[i] +=1
alphabets = []
for i in word_dict.values():
alphabets.append(i)
fig, ax = plt.subplots(1,1, figsize=(7,7))
ax.barh(alphabets, count)
plt.xlabel("Number of elements ")
plt.ylabel("Alphabets")
plt.grid()
plt.show(block=False)
plt.pause(sleepTime)
plt.close()
# Shuffling the data
shuff = shuffle(X_Train[:shuffleVal])
# Model reshaping the training & test dataset
X_Train = X_Train.reshape(X_Train.shape[0],X_Train.shape[1],X_Train.shape[2],1)
print("Shape of Train Data: ", X_Train.shape)
X_Test = X_Test.reshape(X_Test.shape[0], X_Test.shape[1], X_Test.shape[2],1)
print("Shape of Test Data: ", X_Test.shape)
X_Validation = X_Validation.reshape(X_Validation.shape[0], X_Validation.shape[1], X_Validation.shape[2],1)
print("Shape of Validation data: ", X_Validation.shape)
# Converting the labels to categorical values
Y_Train_Catg = to_categorical(Y_Train, num_classes = numOfClasses, dtype='int')
print("Shape of Train Labels: ", Y_Train_Catg.shape)
Y_Test_Catg = to_categorical(Y_Test, num_classes = numOfClasses, dtype='int')
print("Shape of Test Labels: ", Y_Test_Catg.shape)
Y_Validation_Catg = to_categorical(Y_Validation, num_classes = numOfClasses, dtype='int')
print("Shape of validation labels: ", Y_Validation_Catg.shape)
model, history = self.applyCNN(X_Train, Y_Train_Catg, X_Validation, Y_Validation_Catg)
print('Model Summary: ')
print(model.summary())
# Displaying the accuracies & losses for train & validation set
print("Validation Accuracy :", history.history['val_accuracy'])
print("Training Accuracy :", history.history['accuracy'])
print("Validation Loss :", history.history['val_loss'])
print("Training Loss :", history.history['loss'])
# Displaying the Loss Graph
plt.figure(1)
plt.plot(history.history['loss'])
plt.plot(history.history['val_loss'])
plt.legend(['training','validation'])
plt.title('Loss')
plt.xlabel('epoch')
plt.show(block=False)
plt.pause(sleepTime1)
plt.close()
# Dsiplaying the Accuracy Graph
plt.figure(2)
plt.plot(history.history['accuracy'])
plt.plot(history.history['val_accuracy'])
plt.legend(['training','validation'])
plt.title('Accuracy')
plt.xlabel('epoch')
plt.show(block=False)
plt.pause(sleepTime1)
plt.close()
# Making the model to predict
pred = model.predict(X_Test[:predParam])
print('Test Details::')
print('X_Test: ', X_Test.shape)
print('Y_Test_Catg: ', Y_Test_Catg.shape)
try:
score = model.evaluate(X_Test, Y_Test_Catg, verbose=0)
print('Test Score = ', score[0])
print('Test Accuracy = ', score[1])
except Exception as e:
x = str(e)
print('Error: ', x)
# Displaying some of the test images & their predicted labels
fig, ax = plt.subplots(3,3, figsize=(8,9))
axes = ax.flatten()
for i in range(9):
axes[i].imshow(np.reshape(X_Test[i], reshapeVal1), cmap="Greys")
pred = word_dict[np.argmax(Y_Test_Catg[i])]
print('Prediction: ', pred)
axes[i].set_title("Test Prediction: " + pred)
axes[i].grid()
plt.show(block=False)
plt.pause(sleepTime1)
plt.close()
fileName = Curr_Path + sep + 'Model' + sep + 'model_trained_' + str(epochsVal) + '.p'
print('Model Name: ', str(fileName))
pickle_out = open(fileName, 'wb')
pickle.dump(model, pickle_out)
pickle_out.close()
return 0
except Exception as e:
x = str(e)
print('Error: ', x)
return 1

Some of the key snippets from the above scripts are –

x = df_HW_Alphabet.drop('0',axis = 1)
y = df_HW_Alphabet['0']

In the above snippet, we have split the data into images & their corresponding labels.

X_Train, X_Test, Y_Train, Y_Test = train_test_split(x, y, test_size = testRatio)
X_Train, X_Validation, Y_Train, Y_Validation = train_test_split(X_Train, Y_Train, test_size = valRatio)

X_Train = np.reshape(X_Train.values, (X_Train.shape[0], reshapeVal, reshapeVal))
X_Test = np.reshape(X_Test.values, (X_Test.shape[0], reshapeVal, reshapeVal))
X_Validation = np.reshape(X_Validation.values, (X_Validation.shape[0], reshapeVal, reshapeVal))


print("Train Data Shape: ", X_Train.shape)
print("Test Data Shape: ", X_Test.shape)
print("Validation Data shape: ", X_Validation.shape)

We are splitting the data into Train, Test & Validation sets to get more accurate predictions and reshaping the raw data into the image by consuming the 784 data columns to 28×28 pixel images.

Since we are talking about characters, we had to come up with a process of identifying The following snippet will plot the character equivalent number into a matplotlib chart & showcase the overall distribution trend after splitting.

Y_Train_Num = np.int0(y)
count = np.zeros(numOfClasses, dtype='int')
for i in Y_Train_Num:
    count[i] +=1

alphabets = []
for i in word_dict.values():
    alphabets.append(i)

fig, ax = plt.subplots(1,1, figsize=(7,7))
ax.barh(alphabets, count)

plt.xlabel("Number of elements ")
plt.ylabel("Alphabets")
plt.grid()
plt.show(block=False)
plt.pause(sleepTime)
plt.close()

Note that we have tweaked the plt.show property with (block=False). This property will enable us to continue execution without human interventions after the initial pause.

# Model reshaping the training & test dataset
X_Train = X_Train.reshape(X_Train.shape[0],X_Train.shape[1],X_Train.shape[2],1)
print("Shape of Train Data: ", X_Train.shape)

X_Test = X_Test.reshape(X_Test.shape[0], X_Test.shape[1], X_Test.shape[2],1)
print("Shape of Test Data: ", X_Test.shape)

X_Validation = X_Validation.reshape(X_Validation.shape[0], X_Validation.shape[1], X_Validation.shape[2],1)
print("Shape of Validation data: ", X_Validation.shape)

# Converting the labels to categorical values
Y_Train_Catg = to_categorical(Y_Train, num_classes = numOfClasses, dtype='int')
print("Shape of Train Labels: ", Y_Train_Catg.shape)

Y_Test_Catg = to_categorical(Y_Test, num_classes = numOfClasses, dtype='int')
print("Shape of Test Labels: ", Y_Test_Catg.shape)

Y_Validation_Catg = to_categorical(Y_Validation, num_classes = numOfClasses, dtype='int')
print("Shape of validation labels: ", Y_Validation_Catg.shape)

In the above diagram, the application did reshape all three categories of data before calling the primary CNN function.

model = Sequential()

model.add(Conv2D(filters=filterVal1, kernel_size=kernelSize, activation=activationType, input_shape=(28,28,1)))
model.add(MaxPool2D(pool_size=poolSize, strides=stridesVal))

model.add(Conv2D(filters=filterVal2, kernel_size=kernelSize, activation=activationType, padding = paddingVal1))
model.add(MaxPool2D(pool_size=poolSize, strides=stridesVal))

model.add(Conv2D(filters=filterVal3, kernel_size=kernelSize, activation=activationType, padding = paddingVal2))
model.add(MaxPool2D(pool_size=poolSize, strides=stridesVal))

model.add(Flatten())

model.add(Dense(DenkseVal2,activation = activationType))
model.add(Dense(DenkseVal3,activation = activationType))

model.add(Dense(DenkseVal1,activation = activationType2))

model.compile(optimizer = Adam(learning_rate=learningRateVal), loss='categorical_crossentropy', metrics=['accuracy'])
reduce_lr = ReduceLROnPlateau(monitor=monitorVal, factor=factorVal, patience=patienceVal1, min_lr=minLrVal)
early_stop = EarlyStopping(monitor=monitorVal, min_delta=minDeltaVal, patience=patienceVal2, verbose=verboseFlag, mode=modeInd)


fittedModel = model.fit(X_Train, Y_Train_Catg, epochs=epochsVal, callbacks=[reduce_lr, early_stop],  validation_data = (X_Validation,Y_Validation_Catg))

return (model, fittedModel)

In the above snippet, the convolution layers are followed by maxpool layers, which reduce the number of features extracted. The output of the maxpool layers and convolution layers are flattened into a vector of a single dimension and supplied as an input to the Dense layer—the CNN model prepared for training the model using the training dataset.

We have used optimization parameters like Adam, RMSProp & the application we trained for eight epochs for better accuracy & predictions.

# Displaying the accuracies & losses for train & validation set
print("Validation Accuracy :", history.history['val_accuracy'])
print("Training Accuracy :", history.history['accuracy'])
print("Validation Loss :", history.history['val_loss'])
print("Training Loss :", history.history['loss'])

# Displaying the Loss Graph
plt.figure(1)
plt.plot(history.history['loss'])
plt.plot(history.history['val_loss'])
plt.legend(['training','validation'])
plt.title('Loss')
plt.xlabel('epoch')
plt.show(block=False)
plt.pause(sleepTime1)
plt.close()

# Dsiplaying the Accuracy Graph
plt.figure(2)
plt.plot(history.history['accuracy'])
plt.plot(history.history['val_accuracy'])
plt.legend(['training','validation'])
plt.title('Accuracy')
plt.xlabel('epoch')
plt.show(block=False)
plt.pause(sleepTime1)
plt.close()

Also, we have captured the validation Accuracy & Loss & plot them into two separate graphs for better understanding.

try:
    score = model.evaluate(X_Test, Y_Test_Catg, verbose=0)
    print('Test Score = ', score[0])
    print('Test Accuracy = ', score[1])
except Exception as e:
    x = str(e)
    print('Error: ', x)

Also, the application is trying to get the accuracy of the model that we trained & validated with the training & validation data. This time we have used test data to predict the confidence score.

# Displaying some of the test images & their predicted labels
fig, ax = plt.subplots(3,3, figsize=(8,9))
axes = ax.flatten()

for i in range(9):
    axes[i].imshow(np.reshape(X_Test[i], reshapeVal1), cmap="Greys")
    pred = word_dict[np.argmax(Y_Test_Catg[i])]
    print('Prediction: ', pred)
    axes[i].set_title("Test Prediction: " + pred)
    axes[i].grid()
plt.show(block=False)
plt.pause(sleepTime1)
plt.close()

Finally, the application testing with some random test data & tried to plot the output & prediction assessment.

Testing with Random Test Data
fileName = Curr_Path + sep + 'Model' + sep + 'model_trained_' + str(epochsVal) + '.p'
print('Model Name: ', str(fileName))

pickle_out = open(fileName, 'wb')
pickle.dump(model, pickle_out)
pickle_out.close()

As a part of the last step, the application will generate the models using a pickle package & save them under a specific location, which the reader application will use.

3. trainingVisualDataRead.py (Main application that will invoke the training class to predict alphabet through WebCam using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN).)


###############################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE ####
#### Written On: 17-Jan-2022 ####
#### Modified On 17-Jan-2022 ####
#### ####
#### Objective: This is the main calling ####
#### python script that will invoke the ####
#### clsAlhpabetReading class to initiate ####
#### teach & perfect the model to read ####
#### visual alphabets using Convolutional ####
#### Neural Network (CNN). ####
###############################################
# We keep the setup code in a different class as shown below.
import clsAlphabetReading as ar
from clsConfig import clsConfig as cf
import datetime
import logging
###############################################
### Global Section ###
###############################################
# Instantiating all the three classes
x1 = ar.clsAlphabetReading()
###############################################
### End of Global Section ###
###############################################
def main():
try:
# Other useful variables
debugInd = 'Y'
var = datetime.datetime.now().strftime("%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S")
var1 = datetime.datetime.now()
print('Start Time: ', str(var))
# End of useful variables
# Initiating Log Class
general_log_path = str(cf.conf['LOG_PATH'])
# Enabling Logging Info
logging.basicConfig(filename=general_log_path + 'restoreVideo.log', level=logging.INFO)
print('Started Transformation!')
# Execute all the pass
r1 = x1.trainModel(debugInd, var)
if (r1 == 0):
print('Successfully Visual Alphabet Training Completed!')
else:
print('Failed to complete the Visual Alphabet Training!')
var2 = datetime.datetime.now()
c = var2 var1
minutes = c.total_seconds() / 60
print('Total difference in minutes: ', str(minutes))
print('End Time: ', str(var1))
except Exception as e:
x = str(e)
print('Error: ', x)
if __name__ == "__main__":
main()

And the core snippet from the above script is –

x1 = ar.clsAlphabetReading()

Instantiate the main class.

r1 = x1.trainModel(debugInd, var)

The python application will invoke the class & capture the returned value inside the r1 variable.

4. readingVisualData.py (Reading the model to predict Alphabet using WebCAM.)


###############################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE ####
#### Written On: 18-Jan-2022 ####
#### Modified On 18-Jan-2022 ####
#### ####
#### Objective: This python script will ####
#### scan the live video feed from the ####
#### web-cam & predict the alphabet that ####
#### read it. ####
###############################################
# We keep the setup code in a different class as shown below.
from clsConfig import clsConfig as cf
import datetime
import logging
import cv2
import pickle
import numpy as np
###############################################
### Global Section ###
###############################################
sep = str(cf.conf['SEP'])
Curr_Path = str(cf.conf['INIT_PATH'])
fileName = str(cf.conf['FILE_NAME'])
epochsVal = int(cf.conf['epochsVal'])
numOfClasses = int(cf.conf['numOfClasses'])
word_dict = cf.conf['word_dict']
width = int(cf.conf['width'])
height = int(cf.conf['height'])
imgSize = cf.conf['imgSize']
threshold = float(cf.conf['threshold'])
imgDimension = cf.conf['imgDimension']
imgSmallDim = cf.conf['imgSmallDim']
imgMidDim = cf.conf['imgMidDim']
reshapeParam1 = int(cf.conf['reshapeParam1'])
reshapeParam2 = int(cf.conf['reshapeParam2'])
colorFeed = cf.conf['colorFeed']
colorPredict = cf.conf['colorPredict']
###############################################
### End of Global Section ###
###############################################
def main():
try:
# Other useful variables
debugInd = 'Y'
var = datetime.datetime.now().strftime("%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S")
var1 = datetime.datetime.now()
print('Start Time: ', str(var))
# End of useful variables
# Initiating Log Class
general_log_path = str(cf.conf['LOG_PATH'])
# Enabling Logging Info
logging.basicConfig(filename=general_log_path + 'restoreVideo.log', level=logging.INFO)
print('Started Live Streaming!')
cap = cv2.VideoCapture(0)
cap.set(3, width)
cap.set(4, height)
fileName = Curr_Path + sep + 'Model' + sep + 'model_trained_' + str(epochsVal) + '.p'
print('Model Name: ', str(fileName))
pickle_in = open(fileName, 'rb')
model = pickle.load(pickle_in)
while True:
status, img = cap.read()
if status == False:
break
img_copy = img.copy()
img = cv2.cvtColor(img, cv2.COLOR_BGR2RGB)
img = cv2.resize(img, imgDimension)
img_copy = cv2.GaussianBlur(img_copy, imgSmallDim, 0)
img_gray = cv2.cvtColor(img_copy, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY)
bin, img_thresh = cv2.threshold(img_gray, 100, 255, cv2.THRESH_BINARY_INV)
img_final = cv2.resize(img_thresh, imgMidDim)
img_final = np.reshape(img_final, (reshapeParam1,reshapeParam2,reshapeParam2,reshapeParam1))
img_pred = word_dict[np.argmax(model.predict(img_final))]
# Extracting Probability Values
Predict_X = model.predict(img_final)
probVal = round(np.amax(Predict_X) * 100)
cv2.putText(img, "Live Feed : (" + str(probVal) + "%) ", (20,25), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_TRIPLEX, 0.7, color = colorFeed)
cv2.putText(img, "Prediction: " + img_pred, (20,410), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_DUPLEX, 1.3, color = colorPredict)
cv2.imshow("Original Image", img)
if cv2.waitKey(1) & 0xFF == ord('q'):
r1=0
break
if (r1 == 0):
print('Successfully Alphabets predicted!')
else:
print('Failed to predict alphabet!')
var2 = datetime.datetime.now()
c = var2 var1
minutes = c.total_seconds() / 60
print('Total Run Time in minutes: ', str(minutes))
print('End Time: ', str(var1))
except Exception as e:
x = str(e)
print('Error: ', x)
if __name__ == "__main__":
main()

And the key snippet from the above code is –

cap = cv2.VideoCapture(0)
cap.set(3, width)
cap.set(4, height)

The application is reading the live video data from WebCAM. Also, set out the height & width for the video output.

fileName = Curr_Path + sep + 'Model' + sep + 'model_trained_' + str(epochsVal) + '.p'
print('Model Name: ', str(fileName))

pickle_in = open(fileName, 'rb')
model = pickle.load(pickle_in)

The application reads the model output generated as part of the previous script using the pickle package.

while True:
    status, img = cap.read()

    if status == False:
        break

The application will read the WebCAM & it exits if there is an end of video transmission or some kind of corrupt video frame.

img_copy = img.copy()

img = cv2.cvtColor(img, cv2.COLOR_BGR2RGB)
img = cv2.resize(img, imgDimension)

img_copy = cv2.GaussianBlur(img_copy, imgSmallDim, 0)
img_gray = cv2.cvtColor(img_copy, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY)
bin, img_thresh = cv2.threshold(img_gray, 100, 255, cv2.THRESH_BINARY_INV)

img_final = cv2.resize(img_thresh, imgMidDim)
img_final = np.reshape(img_final, (reshapeParam1,reshapeParam2,reshapeParam2,reshapeParam1))


img_pred = word_dict[np.argmax(model.predict(img_final))]

We have initially cloned the original video frame & then it converted from BGR2GRAYSCALE while applying the threshold on it doe better prediction outcomes. Then the image has resized & reshaped for model input. Finally, the np.argmax function extracted the class index with the highest predicted probability. Furthermore, it is translated using the word_dict dictionary to an Alphabet & displayed on top of the Live View.

# Extracting Probability Values
Predict_X = model.predict(img_final)
probVal = round(np.amax(Predict_X) * 100)

Also, derive the confidence score of that probability & display that on top of the Live View.

if cv2.waitKey(1) & 0xFF == ord('q'):
    r1=0
    break

The above code will let the developer exit from this application by pressing the “Esc” or “q”-key from the keyboard & the program will terminate.


So, we’ve done it.

You will get the complete codebase in the following Github link.

I’ll bring some more exciting topic in the coming days from the Python verse. Please share & subscribe my post & let me know your feedback.

Till then, Happy Avenging! 😀

Note: All the data & scenario posted here are representational data & scenarios & available over the internet & for educational purpose only. Some of the images (except my photo) that we’ve used are available over the net. We don’t claim the ownership of these images. There is an always room for improvement & especially the prediction quality of Alphabet.

Performance improvement of Python application programming

Hello guys,

Today, I’ll be demonstrating a short but significant topic. There are widespread facts that, on many occasions, Python is relatively slower than other strongly typed programming languages like C++, Java, or even the latest version of PHP.

I found a relatively old post with a comparison shown between Python and the other popular languages. You can find the details at this link.

However, I haven’t verified the outcome. So, I can’t comment on the final statistics provided on that link.

My purpose is to find cases where I can take certain tricks to improve performance drastically.

One preferable option would be the use of Cython. That involves the middle ground between C & Python & brings the best out of both worlds.

The other option would be the use of GPU for vector computations. That would drastically increase the processing power. Today, we’ll be exploring this option.

Let’s find out what we need to prepare our environment before we try out on this.

Step – 1 (Installing dependent packages):

pip install pyopencl
pip install plaidml-keras

So, we will be taking advantage of the Keras package to use our GPU. And, the screen should look like this –

Installation Process of Python-based Packages

Once we’ve installed the packages, we’ll configure the package showing on the next screen.

Configuration of Packages

For our case, we need to install pandas as we’ll be using numpy, which comes default with it.

Installation of supplemental packages

Let’s explore our standard snippet to test this use case.

Case 1 (Normal computational code in Python):

##############################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE               ####
#### Written On: 18-Jan-2020              ####
####                                      ####
#### Objective: Main calling scripts for  ####
#### normal execution.                    ####
##############################################

import numpy as np
from timeit import default_timer as timer

def pow(a, b, c):
    for i in range(a.size):
         c[i] = a[i] ** b[i]

def main():
    vec_size = 100000000

    a = b = np.array(np.random.sample(vec_size), dtype=np.float32)
    c = np.zeros(vec_size, dtype=np.float32)

    start = timer()
    pow(a, b, c)
    duration = timer() - start

    print(duration)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()

Case 2 (GPU-based computational code in Python):

#################################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE                  ####
#### Written On: 18-Jan-2020                 ####
####                                         ####
#### Objective: Main calling scripts for     ####
#### use of GPU to speed-up the performance. ####
#################################################

import numpy as np
from timeit import default_timer as timer

# Adding GPU Instance
from os import environ
environ["KERAS_BACKEND"] = "plaidml.keras.backend"

def pow(a, b):
    return a ** b

def main():
    vec_size = 100000000

    a = b = np.array(np.random.sample(vec_size), dtype=np.float32)
    c = np.zeros(vec_size, dtype=np.float32)

    start = timer()
    c = pow(a, b)
    duration = timer() - start

    print(duration)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()

And, here comes the output for your comparisons –

Case 1 Vs Case 2:

Performance Comparisons

As you can see, there is a significant improvement that we can achieve using this. However, it has limited scope. Not everywhere you get the benefits. Until or unless Python decides to work on the performance side, you better need to explore either of the two options that I’ve discussed here (I didn’t mention a lot on Cython here. Maybe some other day.).

To get the codebase you can refer the following Github link.


So, finally, we have done it.

I’ll bring some more exciting topic in the coming days from the Python verse.

Till then, Happy Avenging! 😀

Note: All the data & scenario posted here are representational data & scenarios & available over the internet & for educational purpose only.