Performance improvement of Python application programming

Hello guys,

Today, I’ll be demonstrating a short but significant topic. There are widespread facts that, on many occasions, Python is relatively slower than other strongly typed programming languages like C++, Java, or even the latest version of PHP.

I found a relatively old post with a comparison shown between Python and the other popular languages. You can find the details at this link.

However, I haven’t verified the outcome. So, I can’t comment on the final statistics provided on that link.

My purpose is to find cases where I can take certain tricks to improve performance drastically.

One preferable option would be the use of Cython. That involves the middle ground between C & Python & brings the best out of both worlds.

The other option would be the use of GPU for vector computations. That would drastically increase the processing power. Today, we’ll be exploring this option.

Let’s find out what we need to prepare our environment before we try out on this.

Step – 1 (Installing dependent packages):

pip install pyopencl
pip install plaidml-keras

So, we will be taking advantage of the Keras package to use our GPU. And, the screen should look like this –

Installation Process of Python-based Packages

Once we’ve installed the packages, we’ll configure the package showing on the next screen.

Configuration of Packages

For our case, we need to install pandas as we’ll be using numpy, which comes default with it.

Installation of supplemental packages

Let’s explore our standard snippet to test this use case.

Case 1 (Normal computational code in Python):

##############################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE               ####
#### Written On: 18-Jan-2020              ####
####                                      ####
#### Objective: Main calling scripts for  ####
#### normal execution.                    ####
##############################################

import numpy as np
from timeit import default_timer as timer

def pow(a, b, c):
    for i in range(a.size):
         c[i] = a[i] ** b[i]

def main():
    vec_size = 100000000

    a = b = np.array(np.random.sample(vec_size), dtype=np.float32)
    c = np.zeros(vec_size, dtype=np.float32)

    start = timer()
    pow(a, b, c)
    duration = timer() - start

    print(duration)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()

Case 2 (GPU-based computational code in Python):

#################################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE                  ####
#### Written On: 18-Jan-2020                 ####
####                                         ####
#### Objective: Main calling scripts for     ####
#### use of GPU to speed-up the performance. ####
#################################################

import numpy as np
from timeit import default_timer as timer

# Adding GPU Instance
from os import environ
environ["KERAS_BACKEND"] = "plaidml.keras.backend"

def pow(a, b):
    return a ** b

def main():
    vec_size = 100000000

    a = b = np.array(np.random.sample(vec_size), dtype=np.float32)
    c = np.zeros(vec_size, dtype=np.float32)

    start = timer()
    c = pow(a, b)
    duration = timer() - start

    print(duration)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()

And, here comes the output for your comparisons –

Case 1 Vs Case 2:

Performance Comparisons

As you can see, there is a significant improvement that we can achieve using this. However, it has limited scope. Not everywhere you get the benefits. Until or unless Python decides to work on the performance side, you better need to explore either of the two options that I’ve discussed here (I didn’t mention a lot on Cython here. Maybe some other day.).

To get the codebase you can refer the following Github link.


So, finally, we have done it.

I’ll bring some more exciting topic in the coming days from the Python verse.

Till then, Happy Avenging! 😀

Note: All the data & scenario posted here are representational data & scenarios & available over the internet & for educational purpose only.

Predicting health issues for Senior Citizens based on “Realtime Weather Data” in Python

Hi Guys,

Today, I’ll be presenting a different kind of post here. I’ll be trying to predict health issues for senior citizens based on “realtime weather data” by blending open-source population data using some mock risk factor calculation. At the end of the post, I’ll be plotting these numbers into some graphs for better understanding.

Let’s drive!

For this first, we need realtime weather data. To do that, we need to subscribe to the data from OpenWeather API. For that, you have to register as a developer & you’ll receive a similar email from them once they have approved –

1. Subscription To Open Weather

So, from the above picture, you can see that, you’ll be provided one API key & also offered a couple of useful API documentation. I would recommend exploring all the links before you try to use it.

You can also view your API key once you logged into their console. You can also create multiple API keys & the screen should look something like this –

2. Viewing Keys For security reasons, I’ll be hiding my own keys & the same should be applicable for you as well.

I would say many of these free APIs might have some issues. So, I would recommend you to start testing the open API through postman before you jump into the Python development. Here is the glimpse of my test through the postman –

3. Testing API

Once, I can see that the API is returning the result. I can work on it.

Apart from that, one needs to understand that these API might have limited use & also you need to know the consequences in terms of price & tier in case if you exceeded the limit. Here is the detail for this API –

5. Package Details - API

For our demo, I’ll be using the Free tire only.

Let’s look into our other source data. We got the top 10 city population-wise over there internet. Also, we have collected sample Senior Citizen percentage against sex ratio across those cities. We have masked these values on top of that as this is just for education purposes.

1. CityDetails.csv

Here is the glimpse of this file –

4. Source File

So, this file only contains the total population across the top 10 cities in the USA.

2. SeniorCitizen.csv

6. SeniorCitizen Data

This file contains the Sex ratio of Senior citizens across those top 10 cities by population.

Again, we are not going to discuss any script, which we’ve already discussed here.

Hence, we’re skipping clsL.py here.

1. clsConfig.py (This script contains all the parameters of the server.)

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##############################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE               ####
#### Written On: 19-Jan-2019              ####
####                                      ####
#### Objective: This script is a config   ####
#### file, contains all the keys for      ####
#### azure cosmos db. Application will    ####
#### process these information & perform  ####
#### various CRUD operation on Cosmos DB. ####
##############################################

import os
import platform as pl

class clsConfig(object):
    Curr_Path = os.path.dirname(os.path.realpath(__file__))

    os_det = pl.system()
    if os_det == "Windows":
        sep = '\\'
    else:
        sep = '/'

    config = {
        'APP_ID': 1,
        'URL': "http://api.openweathermap.org/data/2.5/weather",
        'API_HOST': "api.openweathermap.org",
        'API_KEY': "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX",
        'API_TYPE': "application/json",
        'CACHE': "no-cache",
        'CON': "keep-alive",
        'ARCH_DIR': Curr_Path + sep + 'arch' + sep,
        'PROFILE_PATH': Curr_Path + sep + 'profile' + sep,
        'LOG_PATH': Curr_Path + sep + 'log' + sep,
        'REPORT_PATH': Curr_Path + sep + 'report',
        'SRC_PATH': Curr_Path + sep + 'Src_File' + sep,
        'APP_DESC_1': 'Open Weather Forecast',
        'DEBUG_IND': 'N',
        'INIT_PATH': Curr_Path,
        'SRC_FILE': Curr_Path + sep + 'Src_File' + sep + 'CityDetails.csv',
        'SRC_FILE_1': Curr_Path + sep + 'Src_File' + sep + 'SeniorCitizen.csv',
        'SRC_FILE_INIT': 'CityDetails.csv',
        'COL_LIST': ['base', 'all', 'cod', 'lat', 'lon', 'dt', 'feels_like', 'humidity', 'pressure', 'temp', 'temp_max', 'temp_min', 'name', 'country', 'sunrise', 'sunset', 'type', 'timezone', 'visibility', 'weather', 'deg', 'gust', 'speed'],
        'COL_LIST_1': ['base', 'all', 'cod', 'lat', 'lon', 'dt', 'feels_like', 'humidity', 'pressure', 'temp', 'temp_max', 'temp_min', 'CityName', 'country', 'sunrise', 'sunset', 'type', 'timezone', 'visibility', 'deg', 'gust', 'speed', 'WeatherMain', 'WeatherDescription'],
        'COL_LIST_2': ['CityName', 'Population', 'State']
    }

2. clsWeather.py (This script contains the main logic to extract the realtime data from our subscribed weather API.)

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##############################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE               ####
#### Written On: 19-Jan-2020              ####
#### Modified On 19-Jan-2020              ####
####                                      ####
#### Objective: Main scripts to invoke    ####
#### Indian Railway API.                  ####
##############################################

import requests
import logging
import json
from clsConfig import clsConfig as cf

class clsWeather:
    def __init__(self):
        self.url = cf.config['URL']
        self.openmapapi_host = cf.config['API_HOST']
        self.openmapapi_key = cf.config['API_KEY']
        self.openmapapi_cache = cf.config['CACHE']
        self.openmapapi_con = cf.config['CON']
        self.type = cf.config['API_TYPE']

    def searchQry(self, rawQry):
        try:
            url = self.url
            openmapapi_host = self.openmapapi_host
            openmapapi_key = self.openmapapi_key
            openmapapi_cache = self.openmapapi_cache
            openmapapi_con = self.openmapapi_con
            type = self.type

            querystring = {"appid": openmapapi_key, "q": rawQry}

            print('Input JSON: ', str(querystring))

            headers = {
                'host': openmapapi_host,
                'content-type': type,
                'Cache-Control': openmapapi_cache,
                'Connection': openmapapi_con
            }

            response = requests.request("GET", url, headers=headers, params=querystring)

            ResJson  = response.text

            jdata = json.dumps(ResJson)
            ResJson = json.loads(jdata)

            return ResJson

        except Exception as e:
            ResJson = ''
            x = str(e)
            print(x)

            logging.info(x)
            ResJson = {'errorDetails': x}

            return ResJson

The key lines from this script –

querystring = {"appid": openmapapi_key, "q": rawQry}

print('Input JSON: ', str(querystring))

headers = {
    'host': openmapapi_host,
    'content-type': type,
    'Cache-Control': openmapapi_cache,
    'Connection': openmapapi_con
}

response = requests.request("GET", url, headers=headers, params=querystring)

ResJson  = response.text

In the above snippet, our application first preparing the payload & the parameters received from our param script. And then invoke the GET method to extract the real-time data in the form of JSON & finally sending the JSON payload to the primary calling function.

3. clsMap.py (This script contains the main logic to prepare the MAP using seaborn package & try to plot our custom made risk factor by blending the realtime data with our statistical data received over the internet.)

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##############################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE               ####
#### Written On: 19-Jan-2020              ####
#### Modified On 19-Jan-2020              ####
####                                      ####
#### Objective: Main scripts to invoke    ####
#### plot into the Map.                   ####
##############################################

import seaborn as sns
import logging
from clsConfig import clsConfig as cf
import pandas as p
import clsL as cl

# This library requires later
# to print the chart
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

class clsMap:
    def __init__(self):
        self.src_file =  cf.config['SRC_FILE_1']

    def calculateRisk(self, row):
        try:
            # Let's assume some logic
            # 1. By default, 30% of Senior Citizen
            # prone to health Issue for each City
            # 2. Male Senior Citizen is 19% more prone
            # to illness than female.
            # 3. If humidity more than 70% or less
            # than 40% are 22% main cause of illness
            # 4. If feels like more than 280 or
            # less than 260 degree are 17% more prone
            # to illness.
            # Finally, this will be calculated per 1K
            # people around 10 blocks

            str_sex = str(row['Sex'])

            int_humidity = int(row['humidity'])
            int_feelsLike = int(row['feels_like'])
            int_population = int(str(row['Population']).replace(',',''))
            float_srcitizen = float(row['SeniorCitizen'])

            confidance_score = 0.0

            SeniorCitizenPopulation = (int_population * float_srcitizen)

            if str_sex == 'Male':
                confidance_score = (SeniorCitizenPopulation * 0.30 * 0.19) + confidance_score
            else:
                confidance_score = (SeniorCitizenPopulation * 0.30 * 0.11) + confidance_score

            if ((int_humidity > 70) | (int_humidity < 40)):
                confidance_score = confidance_score + (int_population * 0.30 * float_srcitizen) * 0.22

            if ((int_feelsLike > 280) | (int_feelsLike < 260)):
                confidance_score = confidance_score + (int_population * 0.30 * float_srcitizen) * 0.17

            final_score = round(round(confidance_score, 2) / (1000 * 10), 2)

            return final_score

        except Exception as e:
            x = str(e)

            return x

    def setMap(self, dfInput):
        try:
            resVal = 0
            df = p.DataFrame()
            debug_ind = 'Y'
            src_file =  self.src_file

            # Initiating Log Class
            l = cl.clsL()

            df = dfInput

            # Creating a subset of desired columns
            dfMod = df[['CityName', 'temp', 'Population', 'humidity', 'feels_like']]

            l.logr('5.dfSuppliment.csv', debug_ind, dfMod, 'log')

            # Fetching Senior Citizen Data
            df = p.read_csv(src_file, index_col=False)

            # Merging two frames
            dfMerge = p.merge(df, dfMod, on=['CityName'])

            l.logr('6.dfMerge.csv', debug_ind, dfMerge, 'log')

            # Getting RiskFactor quotient from our custom made logic
            dfMerge['RiskFactor'] = dfMerge.apply(lambda row: self.calculateRisk(row), axis=1)

            l.logr('7.dfRiskFactor.csv', debug_ind, dfMerge, 'log')

            # Generating Map plotss
            # sns.lmplot(x='RiskFactor', y='SeniorCitizen', data=dfMerge, hue='Sex')
            # sns.lmplot(x='RiskFactor', y='SeniorCitizen', data=dfMerge, hue='Sex', markers=['o','v'], scatter_kws={'s':25})
            sns.lmplot(x='RiskFactor', y='SeniorCitizen', data=dfMerge, col='Sex')

            # This is required when you are running
            # through normal Python & not through
            # Jupyter Notebook
            plt.show()

            return resVal

        except Exception as e:
            x = str(e)
            print(x)

            logging.info(x)
            resVal = x

            return resVal

Key lines from the above codebase –

# Creating a subset of desired columns
dfMod = df[['CityName', 'temp', 'Population', 'humidity', 'feels_like']]

l.logr('5.dfSuppliment.csv', debug_ind, dfMod, 'log')

# Fetching Senior Citizen Data
df = p.read_csv(src_file, index_col=False)

# Merging two frames
dfMerge = p.merge(df, dfMod, on=['CityName'])

l.logr('6.dfMerge.csv', debug_ind, dfMerge, 'log')

# Getting RiskFactor quotient from our custom made logic
dfMerge['RiskFactor'] = dfMerge.apply(lambda row: self.calculateRisk(row), axis=1)

l.logr('7.dfRiskFactor.csv', debug_ind, dfMerge, 'log')

Combining our Senior Citizen data with already processed data coming from our primary calling script. Also, here the application is calculating our custom logic to find out the risk factor figures. If you want to go through that, I’ve provided the logic to derive it. However, this is just a demo to find out similar figures. You should not rely on the logic that I’ve used (It is kind of my observation of life till now. :D).

The below lines are only required when you are running seaborn, not via Jupyter notebook.

plt.show()

4. callOpenMapWeatherAPI.py (This is the first calling script. This script also calls the realtime API & then blend the first file with it & pass the only relevant columns of data to our Map script to produce the graph.)

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##############################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE               ####
#### Written On: 19-Jan-2020              ####
#### Modified On 19-Jan-2020              ####
####                                      ####
#### Objective: Main calling scripts.     ####
##############################################

from clsConfig import clsConfig as cf
import pandas as p
import clsL as cl
import logging
import datetime
import json
import clsWeather as ct
import re
import numpy as np
import clsMap as cm

# Disbling Warning
def warn(*args, **kwargs):
    pass

import warnings
warnings.warn = warn

# Lookup functions from
# Azure cloud SQL DB

var = datetime.datetime.now().strftime("%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S")

def getMainWeather(row):
    try:
        # Using regular expression to fetch time part only

        lkp_Columns = str(row['weather'])
        jpayload = str(lkp_Columns).replace("'", '"')

        #jpayload = json.dumps(lkp_Columns)
        payload = json.loads(jpayload)

        df_lkp = p.io.json.json_normalize(payload)
        df_lkp.columns = df_lkp.columns.map(lambda x: x.split(".")[-1])

        str_main_weather = str(df_lkp.iloc[0]['main'])

        return str_main_weather

    except Exception as e:
        x = str(e)
        str_main_weather = x

        return str_main_weather

def getMainDescription(row):
    try:
        # Using regular expression to fetch time part only

        lkp_Columns = str(row['weather'])
        jpayload = str(lkp_Columns).replace("'", '"')

        #jpayload = json.dumps(lkp_Columns)
        payload = json.loads(jpayload)

        df_lkp = p.io.json.json_normalize(payload)
        df_lkp.columns = df_lkp.columns.map(lambda x: x.split(".")[-1])

        str_description = str(df_lkp.iloc[0]['description'])

        return str_description

    except Exception as e:
        x = str(e)
        str_description = x

        return str_description

def main():
    try:
        dfSrc = p.DataFrame()
        df_ret = p.DataFrame()
        ret_2 = ''
        debug_ind = 'Y'

        general_log_path = str(cf.config['LOG_PATH'])

        # Enabling Logging Info
        logging.basicConfig(filename=general_log_path + 'consolidatedIR.log', level=logging.INFO)

        # Initiating Log Class
        l = cl.clsL()

        # Moving previous day log files to archive directory
        arch_dir = cf.config['ARCH_DIR']
        log_dir = cf.config['LOG_PATH']
        col_list = cf.config['COL_LIST']
        col_list_1 = cf.config['COL_LIST_1']
        col_list_2 = cf.config['COL_LIST_2']

        tmpR0 = "*" * 157

        logging.info(tmpR0)
        tmpR9 = 'Start Time: ' + str(var)
        logging.info(tmpR9)
        logging.info(tmpR0)

        print("Archive Directory:: ", arch_dir)
        print("Log Directory::", log_dir)
        tmpR1 = 'Log Directory::' + log_dir
        logging.info(tmpR1)

        df2 = p.DataFrame()

        src_file =  cf.config['SRC_FILE']

        # Fetching data from source file
        df = p.read_csv(src_file, index_col=False)

        # Creating a list of City Name from the source file
        city_list = df['CityName'].tolist()

        # Declaring an empty dictionary
        merge_dict = {}
        merge_dict['city'] = df2

        start_pos = 1
        src_file_name = '1.' + cf.config['SRC_FILE_INIT']

        for i in city_list:
            x1 = ct.clsWeather()
            ret_2 = x1.searchQry(i)

            # Capturing the JSON Payload
            res = json.loads(ret_2)

            # Converting dictionary to Pandas Dataframe
            # df_ret = p.read_json(ret_2, orient='records')

            df_ret = p.io.json.json_normalize(res)
            df_ret.columns = df_ret.columns.map(lambda x: x.split(".")[-1])

            # Removing any duplicate columns
            df_ret = df_ret.loc[:, ~df_ret.columns.duplicated()]

            # l.logr(str(start_pos) + '.1.' + src_file_name, debug_ind, df_ret, 'log')
            start_pos = start_pos + 1

            # If all the conversion successful
            # you won't get any gust column
            # from OpenMap response. Hence, we
            # need to add dummy reason column
            # to maintain the consistent structures

            if 'gust' not in df_ret.columns:
                df_ret = df_ret.assign(gust=999999)[['gust'] + df_ret.columns.tolist()]

            # Resetting the column orders as per JSON
            column_order = col_list
            df_mod_ret = df_ret.reindex(column_order, axis=1)

            if start_pos == 1:
                merge_dict['city'] = df_mod_ret
            else:
                d_frames = [merge_dict['city'], df_mod_ret]
                merge_dict['city'] = p.concat(d_frames)

            start_pos += 1

        for k, v in merge_dict.items():
            l.logr(src_file_name, debug_ind, merge_dict[k], 'log')

        # Now opening the temporary file
        temp_log_file = log_dir + src_file_name

        dfNew = p.read_csv(temp_log_file, index_col=False)

        # Extracting Complex columns
        dfNew['WeatherMain'] = dfNew.apply(lambda row: getMainWeather(row), axis=1)
        dfNew['WeatherDescription'] = dfNew.apply(lambda row: getMainDescription(row), axis=1)

        l.logr('2.dfNew.csv', debug_ind, dfNew, 'log')

        # Removing unwanted columns & Renaming key columns
        dfNew.drop(['weather'], axis=1, inplace=True)
        dfNew.rename(columns={'name': 'CityName'}, inplace=True)

        l.logr('3.dfNewMod.csv', debug_ind, dfNew, 'log')

        # Now joining with the main csv
        # to get the complete picture
        dfMain = p.merge(df, dfNew, on=['CityName'])

        l.logr('4.dfMain.csv', debug_ind, dfMain, 'log')

        # Let's extract only relevant columns
        dfSuppliment = dfMain[['CityName', 'Population', 'State', 'country', 'feels_like', 'humidity', 'pressure', 'temp', 'temp_max', 'temp_min', 'visibility', 'deg', 'gust', 'speed', 'WeatherMain', 'WeatherDescription']]

        l.logr('5.dfSuppliment.csv', debug_ind, dfSuppliment, 'log')

        # Let's pass this to our map section
        x2 = cm.clsMap()
        ret_3 = x2.setMap(dfSuppliment)

        if ret_3 == 0:
            print('Successful Map Generated!')
        else:
            print('Please check the log for further issue!')

        print("-" * 60)
        print()

        print('Finding Story points..')
        print("*" * 157)
        logging.info('Finding Story points..')
        logging.info(tmpR0)


        tmpR10 = 'End Time: ' + str(var)
        logging.info(tmpR10)
        logging.info(tmpR0)

    except ValueError as e:
        print(str(e))
        print("No relevant data to proceed!")
        logging.info("No relevant data to proceed!")

    except Exception as e:
        print("Top level Error: args:{0}, message{1}".format(e.args, e.message))

if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()

Key snippet from the above script –

# Capturing the JSON Payload
res = json.loads(ret_2)

# Converting dictionary to Pandas Dataframe
df_ret = p.io.json.json_normalize(res)
df_ret.columns = df_ret.columns.map(lambda x: x.split(".")[-1])

Once the application received the JSON response from the realtime API, the application is converting it to pandas dataframe.

# Removing any duplicate columns
df_ret = df_ret.loc[:, ~df_ret.columns.duplicated()]

Since this is a complex JSON response. The application might encounter duplicate columns, which might cause a problem later. Hence, our app is removing all these duplicate columns as they are not required for our cases.

if 'gust' not in df_ret.columns:
    df_ret = df_ret.assign(gust=999999)[['gust'] + df_ret.columns.tolist()]

There is a possibility that the application might not receive all the desired attributes from the realtime API. Hence, the above lines will check & add a dummy column named gust for those records in case if they are not present in the JSON response.

if start_pos == 1:
    merge_dict['city'] = df_mod_ret
else:
    d_frames = [merge_dict['city'], df_mod_ret]
    merge_dict['city'] = p.concat(d_frames)

These few lines required as our API has a limitation of responding with only one city at a time. Hence, in this case, we’re retrieving one town at a time & finally merge them into a single dataframe before creating a temporary source file for the next step.

At this moment our data should look like this –

16. Intermediate_Data_1

Let’s check the weather column. We need to extract the main & description for our dashboard, which will be coming in the next installment.

# Extracting Complex columns
dfNew['WeatherMain'] = dfNew.apply(lambda row: getMainWeather(row), axis=1)
dfNew['WeatherDescription'] = dfNew.apply(lambda row: getMainDescription(row), axis=1)

Hence, we’ve used the following two functions to extract these values & the critical snippet from one of the service is as follows –

lkp_Columns = str(row['weather'])
jpayload = str(lkp_Columns).replace("'", '"')
payload = json.loads(jpayload)

df_lkp = p.io.json.json_normalize(payload)
df_lkp.columns = df_lkp.columns.map(lambda x: x.split(".")[-1])

str_main_weather = str(df_lkp.iloc[0]['main'])

The above lines extracting the weather column & replacing the single quotes with the double quotes before the application is trying to convert that to JSON. Once it converted to JSON, the json_normalize will easily serialize it & create individual columns out of it. Once you have them captured inside the pandas dataframe, you can extract the unique values & store them & return them to your primary calling function.

# Let's pass this to our map section
x2 = cm.clsMap()
ret_3 = x2.setMap(dfSuppliment)

if ret_3 == 0:
    print('Successful Map Generated!')
else:
    print('Please check the log for further issue!')

In the above lines, the application will invoke the Map class to calculate the remaining logic & then plotting the data into the seaborn graph.

Let’s just briefly see the central directory structure –

10. RunWindow

Here is the log directory –

11. Log Directory

And, finally, the source directory should look something like this –

12. SourceDir

Now, let’s runt the application –

Following lines are essential –

sns.lmplot(x='RiskFactor', y='SeniorCitizen', data=dfMerge, hue='Sex')

This will project the plot like this –

13. AdditionalOption

Or,

sns.lmplot(x='RiskFactor', y='SeniorCitizen', data=dfMerge, hue='Sex', markers=['o','v'], scatter_kws={'s':25})

This will lead to the following figures –

14. Adding Markers

As you can see, here, using the marker of (‘o’/’v’) leads to two different symbols for the different gender.

Or,

sns.lmplot(x='RiskFactor', y='SeniorCitizen', data=dfMerge, col='Sex')

This will lead to –

15. Separate By Sex

So, in this case, the application has created two completely different sets for Sex.

So, finally, we’ve done it. 😀

In the next post, I’ll be doing some more improvisation on top of these data sets. Till then – Happy Avenging! 🙂

Note: All the data posted here are representational data & available over the internet & for educational purpose only.

Building Azure Databricks Cluster installing desired packages & with a demo run (Time stone from Python Verse)

Today, I’ll be showing how to prepare a cluster in Azure Databricks from command prompt & will demonstrate any sample csv file process using Pyspark. This can be useful, especially when you want to customize your environment & need to install specific packages inside the clusters with more options.

This is not like any of my earlier posts, where my primary attention is on the Python side. At the end of this post, I’ll showcase one use of Pyspark script & how we can execute them inside Azure Data bricks.

Let’s roll the dice!

Step -1:

Type Azure Databricks in your search folder inside the Azure portal.

0. Azure Search

As shown in the red box, you have to click these options. And, it will take the application to new data bricks sign-in page.

Step -2:

Next step would be clicking the “Add” button. For the first time, the application will ask you to create a storage account associated with this brick.

1. Create Storage

After creation, the screen should look like this –

2.5. Azure-Data-Bricks Options

Now, click the Azure command-line & chose bash as your work environment –

2. After Creation

For security reason, I’ve masked the details.

After successful creation, this page should look like this –

3. Azure Databricks

Once, you click the launch workspace, it will take you to this next page –

4. Detailed Bricks

As you can see that, there are no notebook or python scripts there under Recents tab.

Step -3:

Let’s verify it from the command line shell environment.

5. Python-Env

As you can see, by default python version in bricks is 3.5.2.

Step -4:

Now, we’ll prepare one environment by creating a local directory under the cloud.

The directory that we’ll be creating is – “rndBricks.”

6. Creating Directory

Step -5:

Let’s create the virtual environment here –

Using “virtualenv” function, we’ll be creating the virtual environment & it should look like this –

7. Creating Python-VM

As you can see, that – this will create the first python virtual environment along with the pip & wheel, which is essential for your python environment.

After creating the VM, you need to update Azure CLI, which is shown in the next screenshot given below –

8. Installing Databricks CLI in Python-VM

Before you create the cluster, you need to first generate the token, which will be used for the cluster –

9.1. Generating Token

As shown in the above screen, the “red” marked area is our primary interest. The “green” box, which represents the account image that you need to click & then you have to click “User Settings” marked in blue. Once you click that, you can see the “purple” area, where you need to click the Generate new token button in case if you are doing it for the first time.

Now, we’ll be using this newly generated token to configure data bricks are as follows –

9.2. Configuring with Token

Make sure, you need to mention the correct zone, i.e. westus2/westus or any region as per your geography & convenience.

Once, that is done. You can check the cluster list by the following command (In case, if you already created any clusters in your subscription) –

10. Checking Clusters List

Since we’re building it from scratch. There is no cluster information showing here.

Step -6:

Let’s create the clusters –

11. Creating-Clusters-From-Command

Please find the command that you will be using are as follows –

databricks clusters create –json ‘{ “autoscale”: {“min_workers”: 2, “max_workers”: 8}, “cluster_name”: “pyRnd”, “spark_version”: “5.3.x-scala2.11”, “spark_conf”: {}, “node_type_id”: “Standard_DS3_v2”, “driver_node_type_id”: “Standard_DS3_v2”, “ssh_public_keys”: [], “custom_tags”: {}, “spark_env_vars”: {“PYSPARK_PYTHON”: “/databricks/python3/bin/python3”}, “autotermination_minutes”: 20, “enable_elastic_disk”: true, “cluster_source”: “UI”, “init_scripts”: [] }’

As you can see, you need to pass the information in JSON format. For your better understanding, please find the JSON in a proper format –

11.5. JSON

And, the raw version –

{
  "autoscale": {
    "min_workers": 2,
    "max_workers": 8
  },
  "cluster_name": "pyRnd",
  "spark_version": "5.3.x-scala2.11",
  "spark_conf": {},
  "node_type_id": "Standard_DS3_v2",
  "driver_node_type_id": "Standard_DS3_v2",
  "ssh_public_keys": [],
  "custom_tags": {},
  "spark_env_vars": {
    "PYSPARK_PYTHON": "/databricks/python3/bin/python3"
  },
  "autotermination_minutes": 20,
  "enable_elastic_disk": true,
  "cluster_source": "UI",
  "init_scripts": []
}

Initially, the cluster status will show from the GUI are as follows –

12. Cluster-Status-In-Progress

After a few minutes, this will show the running state –

13. Cluster-Running Status

Let’s check the detailed configuration once the cluster created –

14. Initial Cluster Details

Step -7:

We need to check the library section. This is important as we might need to install many dependant python package to run your application on Azure data bricks. And, the initial Libraries will look like this –

15. Libraries

You can install libraries into an existing cluster either through GUI or through shell command prompt as well. Let’s explore the GUI option.

GUI Option:

First, click the Libraries tab under your newly created clusters, as shown in the above picture. Then you need to click “Install New” button. This will pop-up the following windows –

16. Installing Libraries

As you can see, you have many options along with the possibilities for your python (marked in red) application as well.

Case 1 (Installing PyPi packages):

19. Installing through GUI

Note: You can either mention the specific version or just simply name the package name.

Case 2 (Installing Wheel packages):

16.5. Installing Wheel Libraries

As you can see, from the upload options, you can upload your local libraries & then click the install button to install the same.

UI Option:

Here is another way, you can install your python libraries using the command line as shown in the below screenshots –

17. Running & Installing Libraries - Alternate Options

Few things to notice. The first command shows the current running cluster list. Second, command updating your pip packages. And, the third command, install your desired pypi packages.

Please find the raw commands –

databricks clusters list

pip install -U pip

databricks libraries install –cluster-id “XXXX-XXXXX-leech896” –pypi-package “pandas” –pypi-repo “https://pypi.org/project/pandas/&#8221;

After installing, the GUI page under the libraries section will look like this –

18. Installed Libraries

Note that, for any failed case, you can check the log in this way –

20. Installation-In-progress

If you click on the marked red area, it will pop-up the detailed error details, which is as follows –

19.5. Error Details

So, we’re done with our initial set-up.

Let’s upload one sample file into this environment & try to parse the data.

Step -8:

You can upload your sample file as follows –

23.1. First Step

First, click the “data” & then click the “add data” marked in the red box.

You can import this entire csv data as tables as shown in the next screenshot –

23.2. Uploading Data Files

Also, you can create a local directory here based on your requirements are explained as –

24. Creating Local Directory For Process

Step -9:

Let’s run the code.

Please find the following snippet in PySpark for our test –

1. DBFromFile.py (This script will call the Bricks script & process the data to create an SQL like a table for our task.)

###########################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE        ########
#### Written On: 10-Feb-2019       ########
####                               ########
#### Objective: Pyspark File to    ########
#### parse the uploaded csv file.  ########
###########################################

# File location and type
file_location = "/FileStore/tables/src_file/customer_addr_20180112.csv"
file_type = "csv"

# CSV options
infer_schema = "false"
first_row_is_header = "true"
delimiter = ","

# The applied options are for CSV files. For other file types, these will be ignored.
df = spark.read.format(file_type) \
  .option("inferSchema", infer_schema) \
  .option("header", first_row_is_header) \
  .option("sep", delimiter) \
  .load(file_location)

display(df)

# Create a view or table

temp_table_name = "customer_addr_20180112_csv"

df.createOrReplaceTempView(temp_table_name)

%sql

/* Query the created temp table in a SQL cell */

select * from `customer_addr_20180112_csv`

From the above sample snippet, one can see that the application is trying to parse the source data by providing all the parsing details & then use that csv as a table in SQL.

Let’s check step by step execution.

25. Working With Uploaded File

So, until this step, you can see that the application has successfully parsed the csv data.

And, finally, you can view the data –

25.1. Second Option

As the highlighted blue box shows that the application is using this csv file as a table. So, you have many options to analyze the information flexibly if you are familiar with SQL.

After your job run, make sure you terminate your cluster. Otherwise, you’ll receive a large & expensive usage bill, which you might not want!

So, finally, we’ve done it.

Let me know what do you think.

Till then, Happy Avenging! 😀

Note: All the data posted here are representational data & available over the internet & for educational purpose only.

Combining the NoSQL(Cosmos DB) & traditional Azure RDBMS in Azure (Time stone solo from Python verse)

Hi Guys!

Today, our main objective is to extend our last post & blending two different kinds of data using Python.

Please refer the earlier post if you didn’t go through it – “Building Azure cosmos application.“.

What is the Objective?

In this post, our objective is to combine traditional RDBMS from the cloud with Azure’s NO SQL, which is, in this case, is Cosmos DB. And, try to forecast some kind of blended information, which can be aggregated further.

Examining Source Data.

No SQL Data from Cosmos:

Let’s check one more time the No SQL data created in our last post.

CosmosData

Total, we’ve created 6 records in our last post.

As you can see in red marked areas. From item, one can check the total number of records created. You can also filter out specific record using the Edit Filter blue color button highlighted with blue box & you need to provide the “WHERE CLAUSE” inside it.

Azure SQL DB:

Let’s create some data in Azure SQL DB.

But, before that, you need to create SQL DB in the Azure cloud. Here is the official Microsoft link to create DB in Azure. You can refer to it here.

I won’t discuss the detailed steps of creating DB here.

From Azure portal, it looks like –

Azure SQL DB Main Screen

Let’s see how the data looks like in Azure DB. For our case, we’ll be using the hrMaster DB.

Let’s create the table & some sample data aligned as per our cosmos data.

Azure SQL DB

We will join both the data based on subscriberId & then extract our required columns in our final output.

CombinedData

Good. Now, we’re ready for python scripts.

Python Scripts:

In this installment, we’ll be reusing the following python scripts, which is already discussed in my earlier post –

  • clsL.py
  • clsColMgmt.py
  • clsCosmosDBDet.py

So, I’m not going to discuss these scripts.

Before we discuss our scripts, let’s look out the directory structures –

Win_Vs_MAC

Here is the detailed directory structure between the Windows & MAC O/S.

1. clsConfig.py (This script will create the split csv files or final merge file after the corresponding process. However, this can be used as usual verbose debug logging as well. Hence, the name comes into the picture.)

##############################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE               ####
#### Written On: 25-May-2019              ####
#### Updated On: 02-Jun-2019              ####
####                                      ####
#### Objective: This script is a config   ####
#### file, contains all the keys for      ####
#### azure cosmos db. Application will    ####
#### process these information & perform  ####
#### various CRUD operation on Cosmos DB. ####
##############################################

import os
import platform as pl

class clsConfig(object):
    Curr_Path = os.path.dirname(os.path.realpath(__file__))
    db_name = 'rnd-de01-usw2-vfa-cdb'
    db_link = 'dbs/' + db_name
    CONTAINER1 = "RealtimeEmail"
    CONTAINER2 = "RealtimeTwitterFeedback"
    CONTAINER3 = "RealtimeHR"

    os_det = pl.system()
    if os_det == "Windows":
        sep = '\\'
    else:
        sep = '/'

    config = {
        'SERVER': 'xxxx-xxx.database.windows.net',
        'DATABASE_1': 'SalesForceMaster',
        'DATABASE_2': 'hrMaster',
        'DATABASE_3': 'statMaster',
        'USERNAME': 'admin_poc_dev',
        'PASSWORD': 'xxxxx',
        'DRIVER': '{ODBC Driver 17 for SQL Server}',
        'ENV': 'pocdev-saty',
        'ENCRYPT_FLAG': "yes",
        'TRUST_FLAG': "no",
        'TIMEOUT_LIMIT': "30",
        'PROCSTAT': "'Y'",
        'APP_ID': 1,
        'EMAIL_SRC_JSON_FILE': Curr_Path + sep + 'src_file' + sep + 'srcEmail.json',
        'TWITTER_SRC_JSON_FILE': Curr_Path + sep + 'src_file' + sep + 'srcTwitter.json',
        'HR_SRC_JSON_FILE': Curr_Path + sep + 'src_file' + sep + 'srcHR.json',
        'COSMOSDB_ENDPOINT': 'https://rnd-de01-usw2-vfa-cdb.documents.azure.com:443/',
        'CONFIG_TABLE': 'ETL_CONFIG_TAB',
        'COSMOS_PRIMARYKEY': "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXIsI00AxKXXXXXgg==",
        'ARCH_DIR': Curr_Path + sep + 'arch' + sep,
        'COSMOSDB': db_name,
        'COSMOS_CONTAINER1': CONTAINER1,
        'COSMOS_CONTAINER2': CONTAINER2,
        'COSMOS_CONTAINER3': CONTAINER3,
        'CONFIG_ORIG': 'Config_orig.csv',
        'ENCRYPT_CSV': 'Encrypt_Config.csv',
        'DECRYPT_CSV': 'Decrypt_Config.csv',
        'PROFILE_PATH': Curr_Path + sep + 'profile' + sep,
        'LOG_PATH': Curr_Path + sep + 'log' + sep,
        'REPORT_PATH': Curr_Path + sep + 'report',
        'APP_DESC_1': 'Feedback Communication',
        'DEBUG_IND': 'N',
        'INIT_PATH': Curr_Path,
        'SQL_QRY_1': "SELECT c.subscriberId, c.sender, c.orderNo, c.orderDate, c.items.orderQty  FROM RealtimeEmail c",
        'SQL_QRY_2': "SELECT c.twitterId, c.Twit, c.DateCreated, c.Country FROM RealtimeTwitterFeedback c WHERE c.twitterId=@CrVal",
        'DB_QRY': "SELECT * FROM c",
        'AZURE_SQL_1': "SELECT DISTINCT subscriberId, state, country, annualIncome, customerType FROM dbo.onboardCustomer",
        'COLLECTION_QRY': "SELECT * FROM r",
        'database_link': db_link,
        'collection_link_1': db_link + '/colls/' + CONTAINER1,
        'collection_link_2': db_link + '/colls/' + CONTAINER2,
        'collection_link_3': db_link + '/colls/' + CONTAINER3,
        'options': {
            'offerThroughput': 1000,
            'enableCrossPartitionQuery': True,
            'maxItemCount': 2
        }
    }

Here, we’ve added a couple of more entries compared to the last time, which points the detailed configuration for Azure SQL DB.

‘SERVER’: ‘xxxx-xxx.database.windows.net’,
‘DATABASE_1’: ‘SalesForceMaster’,
‘DATABASE_2’: ‘hrMaster’,
‘DATABASE_3’: ‘statMaster’,
‘USERNAME’: ‘admin_poc_dev’,
‘PASSWORD’: ‘xxxxx’,
‘DRIVER’: ‘{ODBC Driver 17 for SQL Server}’,
‘ENV’: ‘pocdev-saty’,
‘ENCRYPT_FLAG’: “yes”,
‘TRUST_FLAG’: “no”,
‘TIMEOUT_LIMIT’: “30”,
‘PROCSTAT’: “‘Y'”, 

Here, you need to supply your DB credentials accordingly.

2. clsDBLookup.py (This script will look into the Azure SQL DB & fetch data from the traditional RDBMS of Azure environment.)

#####################################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE                      ####
#### Written On: 25-May-2019                     ####
####                                             ####
#### Objective: This script will check &         ####
#### test the connection with the Azure          ####
#### SQL DB & it will fetch all the records      ####
#### name resied under the same DB of a table.   ####
#####################################################

import pyodbc as py
import pandas as p
from clsConfig import clsConfig as cdc

class clsDBLookup(object):
    def __init__(self, lkpTableName = ''):
        self.server = cdc.config['SERVER']
        self.database = cdc.config['DATABASE_1']
        self.database1 = cdc.config['DATABASE_2']
        self.database2 = cdc.config['DATABASE_3']
        self.username = cdc.config['USERNAME']
        self.password = cdc.config['PASSWORD']
        self.driver = cdc.config['DRIVER']
        self.env = cdc.config['ENV']
        self.encrypt_flg = cdc.config['ENCRYPT_FLAG']
        self.trust_flg = cdc.config['TRUST_FLAG']
        self.timeout_limit = cdc.config['TIMEOUT_LIMIT']
        self.lkpTableName = cdc.config['CONFIG_TABLE']
        self.ProcStat = cdc.config['PROCSTAT']
        self.AppId = cdc.config['APP_ID']

    def LookUpData(self):
        try:
            # Assigning all the required values
            server = self.server
            database = self.database1
            username = self.username
            password = self.password
            driver = self.driver
            env = self.env
            encrypt_flg = self.encrypt_flg
            trust_flg = self.trust_flg
            timout_limit = self.timeout_limit
            lkpTableName = self.lkpTableName
            ProcStat = self.ProcStat
            AppId = self.AppId

            # Creating secure connection
            str_conn = 'Driver=' + driver + ';Server=tcp:' + server + ',1433;' \
                       'Database=' + database + ';Uid=' + username + '@' + env + ';' \
                       'Pwd=' + password + ';Encrypt=' + encrypt_flg + ';' \
                       'TrustServerCertificate=' + trust_flg + ';Connection Timeout=' + timout_limit + ';'

            db_con_azure = py.connect(str_conn)

            query = " SELECT [ruleId] as ruleId, [ruleName] as ruleName, [ruleSQL] as ruleSQL, " \
                    " [ruleFlag] as ruleFlag, [appId] as appId, [DBType] as DBType, " \
                    " [DBName] as DBName FROM [dbo][" + lkpTableName + "] WHERE ruleFLag = " + ProcStat + " " \
                    " and appId = " + AppId + " ORDER BY ruleId "

            df = p.read_sql(query, db_con_azure)

            # Closing the connection
            db_con_azure.close()

            return df
        except Exception as e:
            x = str(e)
            print(x)
            df = p.DataFrame()

            return df

    def azure_sqldb_read(self, sql):
        try:
            # Assigning all the required values
            server = self.server
            database = self.database1
            username = self.username
            password = self.password
            driver = self.driver
            env = self.env
            encrypt_flg = self.encrypt_flg
            trust_flg = self.trust_flg
            timout_limit = self.timeout_limit
            lkpTableName = self.lkpTableName
            ProcStat = self.ProcStat
            AppId = self.AppId

            # Creating secure connection
            str_conn = 'Driver=' + driver + ';Server=tcp:' + server + ',1433;' \
                       'Database=' + database + ';Uid=' + username + '@' + env + ';' \
                       'Pwd=' + password + ';Encrypt=' + encrypt_flg + ';' \
                       'TrustServerCertificate=' + trust_flg + ';Connection Timeout=' + timout_limit + ';'

            # print("Connection Details:: ", str_conn)
            db_con_azure = py.connect(str_conn)

            query = sql

            df = p.read_sql(query, db_con_azure)

            # Closing the connection
            db_con_azure.close()

            return df
        except Exception as e:
            x = str(e)
            print(x)
            df = p.DataFrame()

            return df

Major lines to discuss –

azure_sqldb_read(self, sql):

Getting the source SQL supplied from the configuration script.

db_con_azure = py.connect(str_conn)

query = sql

df = p.read_sql(query, db_con_azure)

After creating a successful connection, our application will read the SQL & fetch the data & store that into a pandas dataframe and return the output to the primary calling function.

3. callCosmosAPI.py (This is the main script, which will call all the methods to blend the data. Hence, the name comes into the picture.)

##############################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE               ####
#### Written On: 25-May-2019              ####
#### Modified On 02-Jun-2019              ####
####                                      ####
#### Objective: Main calling scripts.     ####
##############################################

import clsColMgmt as cm
import clsCosmosDBDet as cmdb
from clsConfig import clsConfig as cf
import pandas as p
import clsLog as cl
import logging
import datetime
import json
import clsDBLookup as dbcon

# Disbling Warning
def warn(*args, **kwargs):
    pass

import warnings
warnings.warn = warn

def getDate(row):
    try:
        d1 = row['orderDate']
        d1_str = str(d1)
        d1_dt_part, sec = d1_str.split('.')
        dt_part1 = d1_dt_part.replace('T', ' ')

        return dt_part1
    except Exception as e:
        x = str(e)
        print(x)
        dt_part1 = ''

        return dt_part1

# Lookup functions from
# Azure cloud SQL DB

var = datetime.datetime.now().strftime("%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S")

def main():
    try:
        df_ret = p.DataFrame()
        df_ret_2 = p.DataFrame()
        df_ret_2_Mod = p.DataFrame()

        debug_ind = 'Y'

        # Initiating Log Class
        l = cl.clsLog()

        general_log_path = str(cf.config['LOG_PATH'])

        # Enabling Logging Info
        logging.basicConfig(filename=general_log_path + 'consolidated.log', level=logging.INFO)

        # Moving previous day log files to archive directory
        arch_dir = cf.config['ARCH_DIR']
        log_dir = cf.config['LOG_PATH']

        print("Archive Directory:: ", arch_dir)
        print("Log Directory::", log_dir)

        print("*" * 157)
        print("Testing COSMOS DB Connection!")
        print("*" * 157)

        # Checking Cosmos DB Azure
        y = cmdb.clsCosmosDBDet()
        ret_val = y.test_db_con()

        if ret_val == 0:
            print()
            print("Cosmos DB Connection Successful!")
            print("*" * 157)
        else:
            print()
            print("Cosmos DB Connection Failure!")
            print("*" * 157)
            raise Exception

        print("*" * 157)

        # Accessing from Azure SQL DB
        x1 = dbcon.clsDBLookup()
        act_df = x1.azure_sqldb_read(cf.config['AZURE_SQL_1'])

        print("Azure SQL DB::")
        print(act_df)
        print()

        print("-" * 157)

        # Calling the function 1
        print("RealtimeEmail::")

        # Fetching First collection data to dataframe
        print("Fethcing Comos Collection Data!")

        sql_qry_1 = cf.config['SQL_QRY_1']
        msg = "Documents generatd based on unique key"
        collection_flg = 1

        x = cm.clsColMgmt()
        df_ret = x.fetch_data(sql_qry_1, msg, collection_flg)

        l.logr('1.EmailFeedback_' + var + '.csv', debug_ind, df_ret, 'log')
        print('RealtimeEmail Data::')
        print(df_ret)
        print()

        # Checking execution status
        ret_val = int(df_ret.shape[0])

        if ret_val == 0:
            print("Cosmos DB Hans't returned any rows. Please check your queries!")
            print("*" * 157)
        else:
            print("Successfully fetched!")
            print("*" * 157)

        # Calling the 2nd Collection
        print("RealtimeTwitterFeedback::")

        # Fetching First collection data to dataframe
        print("Fethcing Cosmos Collection Data!")

        # Query using parameters
        sql_qry_2 = cf.config['SQL_QRY_2']
        msg_2 = "Documents generated based on RealtimeTwitterFeedback feed!"
        collection_flg = 2

        val = 'crazyGo'
        param_det = [{"name": "@CrVal", "value": val}]
        add_param = 2

        x1 = cm.clsColMgmt()
        df_ret_2 = x1.fetch_data(sql_qry_2, msg_2, collection_flg, add_param, param_det)

        l.logr('2.TwitterFeedback_' + var + '.csv', debug_ind, df_ret, 'log')
        print('Realtime Twitter Data:: ')
        print(df_ret_2)
        print()

        # Checking execution status
        ret_val_2 = int(df_ret_2.shape[0])

        if ret_val_2 == 0:
            print("Cosmos DB hasn't returned any rows. Please check your queries!")
            print("*" * 157)
        else:
            print("Successfuly row feteched!")
            print("*" * 157)

        # Merging NoSQL Data (Cosmos DB) with Relational DB (Azure SQL DB)
        df_Fin_temp = p.merge(df_ret, act_df, on='subscriberId', how='inner')

        df_fin = df_Fin_temp[['orderDate', 'orderNo', 'sender', 'state', 'country', 'customerType']]

        print("Initial Combined Data (From Cosmos & Azure SQL DB) :: ")
        print(df_fin)

        l.logr('3.InitCombine_' + var + '.csv', debug_ind, df_fin, 'log')

        # Transforming the orderDate as per standard format
        df_fin['orderDateM'] = df_fin.apply(lambda row: getDate(row), axis=1)

        # Dropping the old column & renaming the new column to old column
        df_fin.drop(columns=['orderDate'], inplace=True)
        df_fin.rename(columns={'orderDateM': 'orderDate'}, inplace=True)

        print("*" * 157)
        print()
        print("Final Combined & Transformed result:: ")
        print(df_fin)

        l.logr('4.Final_Combine_' + var + '.csv', debug_ind, df_fin, 'log')
        print("*" * 157)

    except ValueError:
        print("No relevant data to proceed!")

    except Exception as e:
        print("Top level Error: args:{0}, message{1}".format(e.args, e.message))

if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()

The key lines from this script –

def getDate(row):
    try:
        d1 = row['orderDate']
        d1_str = str(d1)
        d1_dt_part, sec = d1_str.split('.')
        dt_part1 = d1_dt_part.replace('T', ' ')

        return dt_part1
    except Exception as e:
        x = str(e)
        print(x)
        dt_part1 = ''

        return dt_part1

This function converts NoSQL date data type more familiar format.

NoSQL Date:
NoSQL_Date
Transformed Date:
Transformed Date
# Accessing from Azure SQL DB
x1 = dbcon.clsDBLookup()
act_df = x1.azure_sqldb_read(cf.config['AZURE_SQL_1'])

print("Azure SQL DB::")
print(act_df)
print()

Above lines are calling the Azure SQL DB method to retrieve the RDBMS data into our dataframe.

# Merging NoSQL Data (Cosmos DB) with Relational DB (Azure SQL DB)
df_Fin_temp = p.merge(df_ret, act_df, on='subscriberId', how='inner')

df_fin = df_Fin_temp[['orderDate', 'orderNo', 'sender', 'state', 'country', 'customerType']]

In these above lines, we’re joining the data retrieved from two different kinds of the database to prepare our initial combined dataframe. Also, we’ve picked only the desired column, which will be useful for us.

# Transforming the orderDate as per standard format
df_fin['orderDateM'] = df_fin.apply(lambda row: getDate(row), axis=1)

# Dropping the old column & renaming the new column to old column
df_fin.drop(columns=['orderDate'], inplace=True)
df_fin.rename(columns={'orderDateM': 'orderDate'}, inplace=True)

In the above lines, we’re transforming our date field, as shown above in one of our previous images by calling the getDate method.

Let’s see the directory structure of our program –

Win_Vs_MAC

Let’s see how it looks when it runs –

Windows:

Win_Run_1
Win_Run_2

MAC:

MAC_Run_1
MAC_Run_2

So, finally, we’ve successfully blended the data & make more meaningful data projection.

Following python packages are required to run this application –

pip install azure

pip install azure-cosmos

pip install pandas

pip install requests

pip install pyodbc

This application tested on Python3.7.1 & Python3.7.2 as well. As per Microsoft, their official supported version is Python3.5.

I hope you’ll like this effort.

Wait for the next installment. Till then, Happy Avenging. 😀

[Note: All the sample data are available/prepared in the public domain for research & study.]

The advanced concept of Pandas & Numpy with an aggregate & lookup of file logging (A crossover over of Space Stone & Soul Stone from the Python verse)

Today, we’ll be implementing the advanced concept of Pandas & Numpy & how one can aggregate data & produce meaningful data insights into your business, which makes an impact on your overall profit.

First, let us understand the complexity of the problem & what we’re looking to achieve here. For that, you need to view the source data & lookup data & how you want to process the data.

Source Data:

sourcedata-e1554702920904-1

The above picture is a sample data-set from a Bank (Data available on U.S public forum), which captures the information of the customer’s current account balance. Let’s look into the look-up files sample data –

First File:

LookUp_1_Actual

Second File:

LookUp_2So, one can clearly see, Bank is trying to get a number of stories based on the existing data.

Challenges:

The first lookup file contains data in a manner where the column of our source file is row here. Hence, you need to somehow bring the source data as per the lookup file to get the other relevant information & then joining that with the second lookup file to bring all the data point for your storyline.

Look-Up Configuration:

In order to match the look-up data with our source data, we’ll be adding two new columns, which will help the application to process the correct row out of the entries provided in the look-up file 1.

LookUp_1

As you can see from the above picture, that two new columns i.e. Category & Stat have added in this context. Here, the category contains metadata information. If a column has a significant number of unique values, then we’re marking it as ‘D in the category. In this case, the bank doesn’t offer any scheme based on the customer’s name. Hence, these fields are marked with ‘I. For the Gender column, the application has less number of unique records i.e. either ‘Male‘ or ‘Female‘. As a result, we provided two corresponding entries. Remember, DateJoined is a key column here. Even though we marked its category as ‘I‘, which denote no transformation requires – ‘K‘ will denote that it is the driving column apart from one of the surrogate key [PKEY] that we’ll be generating during our application transformation process. I’ll discuss that in the respective snippet discussion.

Our Goal:

Based on the source data, We need to find the following story & published that in an excel sheet separately.

  1. The country, Gender wise Bank’s contribution.
  2. The country, Job-wise Bank’s contribution.
  3. The country & Age range wise Saving trends & Bank’s contribution.

A little note on Bank’s Contribution:

Let us explain, what exactly means by Bank’s contribution. Sometimes, bank want’s to encourage savings to an individual client based on all the available factors. So, let’s assume that – Bank contribute $1 for every $150 saving of a person. Again this $1 may vary based on the Age Range & gender to promote a specific group. Also, when someone opens any savings account with the bank, by default bank contributed a sum of $100 at the time when they open an account for a short period of time as part of their promotion strategy. These details you will get it from first lookup file. Second lookup file contains the age range category base on the Group that is available in First Lookup file.

Python Scripts:

In this installment, we’ll be reusing the following python scripts, which is already discussed in my earlier post

  • clsFindFile.py
  • clsL.py

So, I’m not going to discuss these scripts. 

1. clsParam.py (This script will create the split csv files or final merge file after the corresponding process. However, this can be used as normal verbose debug logging as well. Hence, the name comes into the picture.) 

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###########################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE        ########
#### Written On: 04-Apr-2019       ########
###########################################

import os
import platform as pl

class clsParam(object):
    os_det = pl.system()
    dir_sep = ''

    if os_det == "Windows":
        dir_sep = "\\"
    else:
        dir_sep = '/'

    config = {
        'MAX_RETRY' : 5,
        'PATH' : os.path.dirname(os.path.realpath(__file__)) + dir_sep,
        'SRC_DIR' : os.path.dirname(os.path.realpath(__file__)) + dir_sep + 'src_files' + dir_sep,
        'FIN_DIR': os.path.dirname(os.path.realpath(__file__)) + dir_sep + 'finished' + dir_sep,
        'LKP_DIR': os.path.dirname(os.path.realpath(__file__)) + dir_sep + 'lkp_files' + dir_sep,
        'LOG_DIR': os.path.dirname(os.path.realpath(__file__)) + dir_sep + 'log' + dir_sep,
        'LKP_FILE': 'DataLookUp',
        'LKP_CATG_FILE': 'CategoryLookUp',
        'LKP_FILE_DIR_NM': 'lkp_files',
        'SRC_FILE_DIR_NM': 'src_files',
        'FIN_FILE_DIR_NM': 'finished',
        'LOG_FILE_DIR_NM': 'log',
        'DEBUG_IND': 'Y'
    }

 

2. clsLookUpDataRead.py (This script will look into the lookup file & this will generate the combined lookup result as we’ve two different lookup files. Hence, the name comes into the picture.) 

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###########################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE        ########
#### Written On: 04-Apr-2019       ########
###########################################

import pandas as p
import clsFindFile as c
import clsL as log
from clsParam import clsParam as cf
import datetime

# Disbling Warnings
def warn(*args, **kwargs):
    pass
import warnings
warnings.warn = warn

class clsLookUpDataRead(object):

    def __init__(self, lkpFilename):
        self.lkpFilename = lkpFilename

        self.lkpCatgFilename = cf.config['LKP_CATG_FILE']
        self.path = cf.config['PATH']
        self.subdir = str(cf.config['LOG_FILE_DIR_NM'])

        # To disable logging info
        self.Ind = cf.config['DEBUG_IND']
        self.var = datetime.datetime.now().strftime(".%H.%M.%S")

    def getNaN2Null(self, row):
        try:
            str_val = ''
            str_val = str(row['Group']).replace('nan', '').replace('NaN','')

            return str_val
        except:
            str_val = ''

            return str_val

    def ReadTable(self):
        # Assigning Logging Info
        lkpF = []
        lkpF_2 = []
        var = self.var
        Ind = self.Ind
        subdir = self.subdir

        # Initiating Logging Instances
        clog = log.clsL()

        try:

            # Assinging Lookup file name
            lkpFilename = self.lkpFilename

            # Fetching the actual look-up file name
            f = c.clsFindFile(lkpFilename, str(cf.config['LKP_FILE_DIR_NM']))
            lkp_file_list = list(f.find_file())

            # Ideally look-up will be only one file
            # Later it will be converted to table
            for i in range(len(lkp_file_list)):
                lkpF = lkp_file_list[i]

            # Fetching the content of the look-up file
            df_lkpF = p.read_csv(lkpF, index_col=False)

            # Fetching Category LookUp File
            LkpCatgFileName = self.lkpCatgFilename

            f1 = c.clsFindFile(LkpCatgFileName, str(cf.config['LKP_FILE_DIR_NM']))
            lkp_file_list_2 = list(f1.find_file())

            # Ideally look-up will be only one file
            # Later it will be converted to table
            for j in range(len(lkp_file_list_2)):
                lkpF_2 = lkp_file_list_2[j]

            # Fetching the content of the look-up file
            df_lkpF_2 = p.read_csv(lkpF_2, index_col=False)

            # Changing both the column data type as same type
            df_lkpF['Group_1'] = df_lkpF['Group'].astype(str)
            df_lkpF_2['Group_1'] = df_lkpF_2['Group'].astype(str)

            # Dropping the old column
            df_lkpF.drop(['Group'], axis=1, inplace=True)
            df_lkpF_2.drop(['Group'], axis=1, inplace=True)

            # Renaming the changed data type column with the old column name
            df_lkpF.rename(columns={'Group_1':'Group'}, inplace=True)
            df_lkpF_2.rename(columns={'Group_1': 'Group'}, inplace=True)

            # Merging two lookup dataframes to form Final Consolidated Dataframe
            df_Lkp_Merge = p.merge(
                                    df_lkpF[['TableName', 'ColumnOrder', 'ColumnName', 'MappedColumnName',
                                             'Category', 'Stat', 'Group', 'BankContribution']],
                                    df_lkpF_2[['StartAgeRange', 'EndAgeRange', 'Group']],
                                    on=['Group'], how='left')

            # Converting NaN to Nul or empty string
            df_Lkp_Merge['GroupNew'] = df_Lkp_Merge.apply(lambda row: self.getNaN2Null(row), axis=1)

            # Dropping the old column & renaming the new column
            df_Lkp_Merge.drop(['Group'], axis=1, inplace=True)
            df_Lkp_Merge.rename(columns={'GroupNew': 'Group'}, inplace=True)

            clog.logr('1.df_Lkp_Merge' + var + '.csv', Ind, df_Lkp_Merge, subdir)

            return df_Lkp_Merge

        except(FileNotFoundError, IOError) as s:
            y = str(s)
            print(y)

            # Declaring Empty Dataframe
            df_error = p.DataFrame()

            return df_error
        except Exception as e:
            x = str(e)
            print(x)

            # Declaring Empty Dataframe
            df_error = p.DataFrame()

            return df_error

 

Key lines from this script –

# Fetching the actual look-up file name
f = c.clsFindFile(lkpFilename, str(cf.config['LKP_FILE_DIR_NM']))
lkp_file_list = list(f.find_file())

# Ideally look-up will be only one file
# Later it will be converted to table
for i in range(len(lkp_file_list)):
lkpF = lkp_file_list[i]

# Fetching the content of the look-up file
df_lkpF = p.read_csv(lkpF, index_col=False)

Here, the application will try to find out the lookup file based on the file name pattern & directory path. And, then load the data into the dataframe.

# Fetching Category LookUp File
LkpCatgFileName = self.lkpCatgFilename

f1 = c.clsFindFile(LkpCatgFileName, str(cf.config['LKP_FILE_DIR_NM']))
lkp_file_list_2 = list(f1.find_file())

# Ideally look-up will be only one file
# Later it will be converted to table
for j in range(len(lkp_file_list_2)):
lkpF_2 = lkp_file_list_2[j]

# Fetching the content of the look-up file
df_lkpF_2 = p.read_csv(lkpF_2, index_col=False)

In this step, the second lookup file will be loaded into the second dataframe.

# Changing both the column data type as same type
df_lkpF['Group_1'] = df_lkpF['Group'].astype(str)
df_lkpF_2['Group_1'] = df_lkpF_2['Group'].astype(str)

# Dropping the old column
df_lkpF.drop(['Group'], axis=1, inplace=True)
df_lkpF_2.drop(['Group'], axis=1, inplace=True)

# Renaming the changed data type column with the old column name
df_lkpF.rename(columns={'Group_1':'Group'}, inplace=True)
df_lkpF_2.rename(columns={'Group_1': 'Group'}, inplace=True)

It is always better to cast the same datatype for those columns, which will be used part of the joining key. The above snippet does exactly that.

# Merging two lookup dataframes to form Final Consolidated Dataframe
df_Lkp_Merge = p.merge(
df_lkpF[['TableName', 'ColumnOrder', 'ColumnName', 'MappedColumnName',
'Category', 'Stat', 'Group', 'BankContribution']],
df_lkpF_2[['StartAgeRange', 'EndAgeRange', 'Group']],
on=['Group'], how='left')

In this step, the first lookup file will be left join with the second lookup file based on Group column.

# Converting NaN to Nul or empty string
df_Lkp_Merge['GroupNew'] = df_Lkp_Merge.apply(lambda row: self.getNaN2Null(row), axis=1)

# Dropping the old column & renaming the new column
df_Lkp_Merge.drop(['Group'], axis=1, inplace=True)
df_Lkp_Merge.rename(columns={'GroupNew': 'Group'}, inplace=True)

Once merge is done, key columns need to suppress ‘NaN’ values to Null for better data process.

3. clsPivotLookUp.py (This script will actually contain the main logic to process & merge the data between source & lookup files & create group data & based on that data point will be produced & captured in the excel. Hence, the name comes into the picture.) 

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###########################################
#### Written By: SATYAKI DE        ########
#### Written On: 04-Apr-2019       ########
###########################################

import pandas as p
import numpy as np
import clsFindFile as c
import clsL as log
import datetime
from clsParam import clsParam as cf
from pandas import ExcelWriter

# Disbling Warnings
def warn(*args, **kwargs):
    pass
import warnings
warnings.warn = warn

class clsPivotLookUp(object):

    def __init__(self, srcFilename, tgtFileName, df_lkpF):
        self.srcFilename = srcFilename
        self.tgtFileName = tgtFileName
        self.df_lkpF = df_lkpF
        self.lkpCatgFilename = cf.config['LKP_CATG_FILE']

        self.path = cf.config['PATH']
        self.subdir = str(cf.config['LOG_FILE_DIR_NM'])
        self.subdir_2 = str(cf.config['FIN_FILE_DIR_NM'])
        # To disable logging info
        self.Ind = cf.config['DEBUG_IND']
        self.report_path = cf.config['FIN_DIR']

    def dfs_tabs(self, df_list, sheet_list, file_name):
        try:
            cnt = 0
            number_rows = 0

            writer = p.ExcelWriter(file_name, engine='xlsxwriter')

            for dataframe, sheet in zip(df_list, sheet_list):
                number_rows = int(dataframe.shape[0])
                number_cols = int(dataframe.shape[1])

                if cnt == 0:
                    dataframe.to_excel(writer, sheet_name=sheet, startrow=7, startcol=5)
                else:
                    dataframe.to_excel(writer, sheet_name=sheet, startrow=5, startcol=0)

                # Get the xlsxwriter workbook & worksheet objects
                workbook = writer.book
                worksheet = writer.sheets[sheet]
                worksheet.set_zoom(90)

                if cnt == 0:
                    worksheet.set_column('A:E', 4)
                    worksheet.set_column('F:F', 20)
                    worksheet.set_column('G:G', 10)
                    worksheet.set_column('H:J', 20)

                    # Insert an Image
                    worksheet.insert_image('E1', 'Logo.png', {'x_scale':0.6, 'y_scale':0.8})

                    # Add a number format for cells with money.
                    money_fmt = workbook.add_format({'num_format': '$#,##0', 'border': 1})
                    worksheet.set_column('H:H', 20, money_fmt)

                    # Define our range for color formatting
                    color_range = "F9:F{}".format(number_rows * 2 + 1)

                    # Add a format. Red fill with the dark red text
                    red_format = workbook.add_format({'bg_color':'#FEC7CE', 'font_color':'#0E0E08', 'border':1})

                    # Add a format. Green fill with the dark green text
                    green_format = workbook.add_format({'bg_color': '#D0FCA4', 'font_color': '#0E0E08', 'border': 1})

                    # Add a format. Cyan fill with the dark green text
                    mid_format = workbook.add_format({'bg_color': '#6FC2D8', 'font_color': '#0E0E08', 'border': 1})

                    # Add a format. Other fill with the dark green text
                    oth_format = workbook.add_format({'bg_color': '#AFC2D8', 'font_color': '#0E0E08', 'border': 1})

                    worksheet.conditional_format(color_range, {'type':'cell',
                                                               'criteria':'equal to',
                                                               'value':'"England"',
                                                               'format': green_format})

                    worksheet.conditional_format(color_range, {'type': 'cell',
                                                               'criteria': 'equal to',
                                                               'value': '"Northern Ireland"',
                                                               'format': mid_format})

                    worksheet.conditional_format(color_range, {'type': 'cell',
                                                               'criteria': 'equal to',
                                                               'value': '"Scotland"',
                                                               'format': red_format})

                    worksheet.conditional_format(color_range, {'type': 'cell',
                                                               'criteria': 'equal to',
                                                               'value': '"Wales"',
                                                               'format': oth_format})
                else:
                    first_row = 5
                    first_col = 0
                    last_row = first_row + (number_rows * 2)
                    last_col = number_cols - 1

                    if cnt == 1:
                        worksheet.set_column('A:D', 20)
                    else:
                        worksheet.set_column('A:E', 20)
                        worksheet.set_column('F:F', 20)


                    # Add a number format for cells with money.
                    # money_fmt = workbook.add_format({'num_format': '$#,##0', 'bold': True, 'border':1})
                    money_fmt = workbook.add_format({'num_format': '$#,##0', 'border': 1})

                    # Amount columns
                    if cnt == 1:
                        worksheet.set_row(6, 0, money_fmt)
                        worksheet.set_column('C:C', 20, money_fmt)
                    else:
                        worksheet.set_row(6, 0, money_fmt)
                        worksheet.set_column('D:F', 20, money_fmt)

                    # Insert an Image
                    worksheet.insert_image('B1', 'Logo.png', {'x_scale': 0.5, 'y_scale': 0.5})

                    # Add a format. Red fill with the dark red text
                    red_format = workbook.add_format({'bg_color': '#FEC7CE', 'font_color': '#0E0E08'})

                    # Add a format. Green fill with the dark green text
                    green_format = workbook.add_format({'bg_color': '#D0FCA4', 'font_color': '#0E0E08'})

                    # Add a format. Cyan fill with the dark green text
                    mid_format = workbook.add_format({'bg_color': '#6FC2D8', 'font_color': '#0E0E08'})

                    # Add a format. Other fill with the dark green text
                    oth_format = workbook.add_format({'bg_color': '#AFC2D8', 'font_color': '#0E0E08'})

                    # Fill colour based on formula
                    worksheet.conditional_format(first_row,
                                                 first_col,
                                                 last_row,
                                                 last_col,
                                                 {'type': 'formula',
                                                  'criteria': '=INDIRECT("A"&ROW())="England"',
                                                  'format': green_format})

                    worksheet.conditional_format(first_row,
                                                 first_col,
                                                 last_row,
                                                 last_col,
                                                 {'type': 'formula',
                                                  'criteria': '=INDIRECT("A"&ROW())="Northern Ireland"',
                                                  'format': mid_format})

                    worksheet.conditional_format(first_row,
                                                 first_col,
                                                 last_row,
                                                 last_col,
                                                 {'type': 'formula',
                                                  'criteria': '=INDIRECT("A"&ROW())="Scotland"',
                                                  'format': red_format})

                    worksheet.conditional_format(first_row,
                                                 first_col,
                                                 last_row,
                                                 last_col,
                                                 {'type': 'formula',
                                                  'criteria': '=INDIRECT("A"&ROW())="Wales"',
                                                  'format': oth_format})

                cnt += 1

            writer.save()
            writer.close()

            return 0
        except Exception as e:
            x = str(e)
            print(x)

            return 1

    def getIntVal(self, row):
        try:
            int_val = 0
            int_val = int(row['MCategory'])

            return int_val
        except:
            int_val = 0

            return int_val

    def getSavingsAmount(self, row):
        try:
            savings = 0.0
            savings = float(row['Balance']) - float(row['BankContribution'])

            return savings
        except:
            savings = 0

            return savings

    def getNaN2Zero_StartAgeRange(self, row):
        try:
            int_AgeRange = 0
            str_StartAgeRange = ''

            str_StartAgeRange = str(row['StartAgeRange']).replace('nan','').replace('NaN','')

            if (len(str_StartAgeRange) > 0):
                int_AgeRange = int(float(str_StartAgeRange))
            else:
                int_AgeRange = 0

            return int_AgeRange
        except:
            int_AgeRange = 0

            return int_AgeRange

    def getNaN2Zero_EndAgeRange(self, row):
        try:
            int_AgeRange = 0
            str_EndAgeRange = ''

            str_EndAgeRange = str(row['EndAgeRange']).replace('nan','').replace('NaN','')

            if (len(str_EndAgeRange) > 0):
                int_AgeRange = int(float(str_EndAgeRange))
            else:
                int_AgeRange = 0

            return int_AgeRange
        except:
            int_AgeRange = 0

            return int_AgeRange


    def parse_and_write_csv(self):

        # Assigning Logging Info
        Ind = self.Ind
        subdir = self.subdir
        subdir_2 = self.subdir_2
        lkpF = []
        lkpF_2 = []
        report_path = self.report_path

        #Initiating Logging Instances
        clog = log.clsL()

        if Ind == 'Y':
            print('Logging Enabled....')
        else:
            print('Logging Not Enabled....')

        # Assigning Source File Basic Name
        srcFileInit = self.srcFilename
        tgtFileName = self.tgtFileName
        df_lkpF = self.df_lkpF

        try:

            # Fetching the actual source file name
            d = c.clsFindFile(self.srcFilename, str(cf.config['SRC_FILE_DIR_NM']))
            src_file_list = d.find_file()

            # Ideally look-up will be only one file
            # Later it will be converted to table
            for i in range(len(src_file_list)):

                # Handling Multiple source files
                var = datetime.datetime.now().strftime(".%H.%M.%S")
                print('Target File Extension will contain the following:: ', var)

                srcF = src_file_list[i]

                # Reading Source File
                df = p.read_csv(srcF, index_col=False)

                # Adding a new surrogate key to the existing records
                df = df.assign(PKEY=[1 + i for i in range(len(df))])[['PKEY'] + df.columns.tolist()]

                clog.logr('2.DF_Assign' + var + '.csv', Ind, df, subdir)

                # Fetching only relevant rows from the Look-up Files
                # based on Filters with 'I' or No Token
                # 'K' for Key columns with No Token
                # 'D' for Single column Token
                df_lkpFile = df_lkpF[(df_lkpF['TableName'] == srcFileInit) &
                                     ((df_lkpF['Category'] == 'I') | (df_lkpF['Category'] == 'K'))]

                # Fetching the unique records from Look-up table
                id_list1 = list(df_lkpFile['ColumnName'].drop_duplicates())
                id_list2 = ['PKEY']

                id_list = id_list2 + id_list1

                # Pivoting part of the source file data to be join for merge
                df_melt = df.melt(id_vars=id_list, var_name='ColumnName')

                # Changing the generated column Value to Category for upcoming Merge
                # df_melt = df_tmp_melt.rename_by_col_index(idx_np,'Category')
                # df_melt.rename(columns={'value': 'Category'}, inplace=True)
                df_melt.rename(columns={'value': 'MCategory'}, inplace=True)

                #df_melt.to_csv(path+'1.DF_Melt.csv')
                clog.logr('3.DF_Melt' + var + '.csv', Ind, df_melt, subdir)

                # Now fetching look-up file one more time
                # filtering with the only Table Name
                # For merge with our temporary df_melt
                # to get the relevant lookup
                # information

                df_lkpFinFile = df_lkpF[(df_lkpF['TableName'] == srcFileInit) &
                                        ((df_lkpF['Category'] == 'D') | (df_lkpF['Category'] == 'Male') |
                                        (df_lkpF['Category'] == 'K') | (df_lkpF['Category'] == 'Female'))]

                clog.logr('4.DF_Finlkp' + var + '.csv', Ind, df_lkpFinFile, subdir)

                # Merging two files based on Keys
                # df_fin = df_melt.merge(df_lkpFinFile, on=['ColumnName', 'Category'], how='left')
                df_fin = df_melt.merge(df_lkpFinFile, on=['ColumnName'], how='left')

                clog.logr('5.DF_FIN_Basic_Merge' + var + '.csv', Ind, df_fin, subdir)

                df_fin2 = df_fin[((df_fin['MCategory'] == 'I') & (df_fin['Category'] == df_fin['MCategory'])) |
                                 ((df_fin['MCategory'] == 'Male') & (df_fin['Category'] == df_fin['MCategory'])) |
                                 ((df_fin['MCategory'] == 'Female') & (df_fin['Category'] == df_fin['MCategory'])) |
                                 (df_fin['MCategory'] == 'NaN') |
                                 (df_fin['MCategory'] == 'D') |
                                 (
                                     (df_fin['MCategory'] != 'I') & (df_fin['MCategory'] != 'Male') &
                                     (df_fin['MCategory'] != 'Female') & (df_fin['MCategory'] != 'D') &
                                     (df_fin['MCategory'] != 'NaN')
                                 )]

                clog.logr('6.Merge_After_Filter' + var + '.csv', Ind, df_fin2, subdir)

                # Identifying Integer Column for next step
                df_fin2['Catg'] = df_fin2.apply(lambda row: self.getIntVal(row), axis=1)
                df_fin2['StAge'] = df_fin2.apply(lambda row: self.getNaN2Zero_StartAgeRange(row), axis=1)
                df_fin2['EnAge'] = df_fin2.apply(lambda row: self.getNaN2Zero_EndAgeRange(row), axis=1)

                # Dropping the old Columns
                df_fin2.drop(['Category'], axis=1, inplace=True)
                df_fin2.drop(['StartAgeRange'], axis=1, inplace=True)
                df_fin2.drop(['EndAgeRange'], axis=1, inplace=True)

                # Renaming the new columns
                df_fin2.rename(columns={'Catg': 'Category'}, inplace=True)
                df_fin2.rename(columns={'StAge': 'StartAgeRange'}, inplace=True)
                df_fin2.rename(columns={'EnAge': 'EndAgeRange'}, inplace=True)

                clog.logr('7.Catg' + var + '.csv', Ind, df_fin2, subdir)

                # Handling special cases when Category from source & lookup file won't match
                # alternative way to implement left outer join due to specific data scenarios
                df_fin2['Flag'] = np.where(((df_fin2.StartAgeRange == 0) | (df_fin2.EndAgeRange == 0)) |
                                           (((df_fin2.StartAgeRange > 0) & (df_fin2.EndAgeRange > 0)) &
                                            ((df_fin2.Category >= df_fin2.StartAgeRange)
                                              & (df_fin2.Category <= df_fin2.EndAgeRange))), 'Y', 'N')

                clog.logr('8.After_Special_Filter' + var + '.csv', Ind, df_fin2, subdir)

                # Removing data where Flag is set to Y
                newDF = df_fin2[(df_fin2['Flag'] == 'Y')]

                clog.logr('9.Flag_Filter' + var + '.csv', Ind, newDF, subdir)

                # Need to drop column called ColumnName
                newDF.drop(['TableName'], axis=1, inplace=True)
                newDF.drop(['ColumnOrder'], axis=1, inplace=True)
                newDF.drop(['ColumnName'], axis=1, inplace=True)
                newDF.drop(['Category'], axis=1, inplace=True)
                newDF.drop(['Flag'], axis=1, inplace=True)
                newDF.drop(['Group'], axis=1, inplace=True)

                # Need to rename MappedColumnName to ColumnName
                newDF.rename(columns={'MappedColumnName': 'ColumnName'}, inplace=True)

                clog.logr('10.newDF' + var + '.csv', Ind, newDF, subdir)

                df_short = newDF[['PKEY', 'BankContribution', 'StartAgeRange', 'EndAgeRange']]

                clog.logr('11.df_short' + var + '.csv', Ind, df_short, subdir)

                # Aggregating information
                grouped = df_short.groupby(['PKEY'])
                dfGroup = grouped.aggregate(np.sum)

                clog.logr('12.dfGroup' + var + '.csv', Ind, dfGroup, subdir)

                # Let's merge to get evrything in row level
                df_rowlvl = df.merge(dfGroup, on=['PKEY'], how='inner')

                clog.logr('13.Rowlvl_Merge' + var + '.csv', Ind, df_rowlvl, subdir)

                # Dropping PKEY & Unnamed columns from the csv
                df_rowlvl.drop(['PKEY'], axis=1, inplace=True)

                clog.logr('14.Final_DF' + var + '.csv', Ind, df_rowlvl, subdir)

                ##############################################################
                #### Country & Gender wise Bank's Contribution           #####
                ##############################################################
                dfCountryGender = df_rowlvl[['Region', 'Gender', 'BankContribution']]

                grouped_CG = dfCountryGender.groupby(['Region', 'Gender'])
                dCountryGen = grouped_CG.aggregate(np.sum)

                print("-" * 60)
                print("Country & Gender wise Bank's Contribution")
                print("-" * 60)
                print(dCountryGen)

                clog.logr('15.dCountryGen' + var + '.csv', Ind, dCountryGen, subdir)

                ###############################################################
                ###### End Of Country & Gender wise Bank's Contribution  ######
                ###############################################################

                ##############################################################
                #### Country & Job wise Bank's Contribution              #####
                ##############################################################

                dfCountryJob = df_rowlvl[['Region', 'Job Classification', 'BankContribution']]

                grouped_CJ = dfCountryJob.groupby(['Region', 'Job Classification'])
                dCountryJob = grouped_CJ.aggregate(np.sum)

                print("-" * 60)
                print("Country & Job wise Bank's Contribution")
                print("-" * 60)
                print(dCountryJob)

                clog.logr('16.dCountryJob' + var + '.csv', Ind, dCountryJob, subdir)

                ###############################################################
                ###### End Of Country & Job wise Bank's Contribution     ######
                ###############################################################

                ##############################################################
                #### Country & Age wise Savings & Bank's Contribution    #####
                ##############################################################

                dfCountryAge = df_rowlvl[['Region', 'StartAgeRange', 'EndAgeRange', 'Balance', 'BankContribution']]
                dfCountryAge['SavingsAmount'] = dfCountryAge.apply(lambda row: self.getSavingsAmount(row), axis=1)

                grouped_CA = dfCountryAge.groupby(['Region', 'StartAgeRange', 'EndAgeRange'])
                dCountryAge = grouped_CA.aggregate(np.sum)

                print("-" * 60)
                print("Country & Job wise Bank's Contribution")
                print("-" * 60)
                print(dCountryAge)

                clog.logr('17.dCountryAge' + var + '.csv', Ind, dCountryAge, subdir)

                ##############################################################
                #### End Of Country & Age wise Savings & Bank's          #####
                #### Contribution                                        #####
                ##############################################################

                print('Writing to file!!')

                # Avoiding Index column of dataframe while copying to csv
                # df_token.to_csv(tgtFileName, index=False)
                # For Target File Ind should be always Yes/Y
                Ind = 'Y'

                FtgtFileName = tgtFileName + var + '.csv'
                clog.logr(FtgtFileName, Ind, df_rowlvl, subdir_2)

                ##############################################################
                ##### Writing to Excel File with Different Tabular Sheet #####
                ##############################################################
                dfs = [dCountryGen, dCountryJob, dCountryAge]
                sheets = ['Country-Gender-Stats', 'Country-Job-Stats', 'Country-Age-Stats']

                x = self.dfs_tabs(dfs, sheets, report_path+tgtFileName + var + '.xlsx')

                ##############################################################
                #####             End Of Excel Sheet Writing             #####
                ##############################################################

                # Resetting the Filename after every iteration
                # in case of Mulriple source file exists
                FtgtFileName = ""

            return 0

        except Exception as e:
            x = str(e)
            print(x)
            return 9

 

Key snippets from this script –

# Adding a new surrogate key to the existing records
df = df.assign(PKEY=[1 + i for i in range(len(df))])[['PKEY'] + df.columns.tolist()]

This is extremely crucial as the application will create its own unique key irrespective of data files, which will be used for most of the places for the data process.

df_lkpFile = df_lkpF[(df_lkpF['TableName'] == srcFileInit) &
((df_lkpF['Category'] == 'I') | (df_lkpF['Category'] == 'K'))]

# Fetching the unique records from Look-up table
id_list1 = list(df_lkpFile['ColumnName'].drop_duplicates())
id_list2 = ['PKEY']

id_list = id_list2 + id_list1

This steps will capture all the columns except our key columns in our source table, which will convert columns to rows & then it will be used to join with our look-up table.

# Pivoting part of the source file data to be join for merge
df_melt = df.melt(id_vars=id_list, var_name='ColumnName')

As in the above step, the application is converting key columns of our source file to rows.

df_lkpFinFile = df_lkpF[(df_lkpF['TableName'] == srcFileInit) &
((df_lkpF['Category'] == 'D') | (df_lkpF['Category'] == 'Male') |
(df_lkpF['Category'] == 'K') | (df_lkpF['Category'] == 'Female'))]

In this step, the application will consider all the rows based on source file name pattern & based on certain data, which will be used for lookup join.

df_fin = df_melt.merge(df_lkpFinFile, on=['ColumnName'], how='left')

In this step, the application will join the transformed data of source file with our lookup file.

df_fin2 = df_fin[((df_fin['MCategory'] == 'I') & (df_fin['Category'] == df_fin['MCategory'])) |
((df_fin['MCategory'] == 'Male') & (df_fin['Category'] == df_fin['MCategory'])) |
((df_fin['MCategory'] == 'Female') & (df_fin['Category'] == df_fin['MCategory'])) |
(df_fin['MCategory'] == 'NaN') |
(df_fin['MCategory'] == 'D') |
(
(df_fin['MCategory'] != 'I') & (df_fin['MCategory'] != 'Male') &
(df_fin['MCategory'] != 'Female') & (df_fin['MCategory'] != 'D') &
(df_fin['MCategory'] != 'NaN')
)]

This step brings the data, which will look like –

Imp_Step_1

# Identifying Integer Column for next step
df_fin2['Catg'] = df_fin2.apply(lambda row: self.getIntVal(row), axis=1)
df_fin2['StAge'] = df_fin2.apply(lambda row: self.getNaN2Zero_StartAgeRange(row), axis=1)
df_fin2['EnAge'] = df_fin2.apply(lambda row: self.getNaN2Zero_EndAgeRange(row), axis=1)

# Dropping the old Columns
df_fin2.drop(['Category'], axis=1, inplace=True)
df_fin2.drop(['StartAgeRange'], axis=1, inplace=True)
df_fin2.drop(['EndAgeRange'], axis=1, inplace=True)

# Renaming the new columns
df_fin2.rename(columns={'Catg': 'Category'}, inplace=True)
df_fin2.rename(columns={'StAge': 'StartAgeRange'}, inplace=True)
df_fin2.rename(columns={'EnAge': 'EndAgeRange'}, inplace=True)

Now, the application will remove NaN from these key columns for important upcoming step.

After this step, the new data looks like –

Imp_Step_2

So, now, it will be easier to filter out these data based on age range against customer age int the next step as follows –

# Handling special cases when Category from source & lookup file won't match
# alternative way to implement left outer join due to specific data scenarios
df_fin2['Flag'] = np.where(((df_fin2.StartAgeRange == 0) | (df_fin2.EndAgeRange == 0)) |
(((df_fin2.StartAgeRange > 0) & (df_fin2.EndAgeRange > 0)) &
((df_fin2.Category >= df_fin2.StartAgeRange)
& (df_fin2.Category <= df_fin2.EndAgeRange))), 'Y', 'N')

After this, new data looks like –

Imp_Step_3

Finally, filter out only records with ‘Y’. And, the data looks like as follows –

Imp_Step_4

Now, the application needs to consolidate Bank Contribution, Start & End Age Range & needs to re-pivot the data to make it a single row per customer. The data should look like this –

Imp_Step_5

Once this is done, our application is ready for all the aggregated data points.

Hence, three different categories of data transformations are self-explanatory –

Data Point – 1:

##############################################################
#### Country & Gender wise Bank's Contribution #####
##############################################################
dfCountryGender = df_rowlvl[['Region', 'Gender', 'BankContribution']]

grouped_CG = dfCountryGender.groupby(['Region', 'Gender'])
dCountryGen = grouped_CG.aggregate(np.sum)

print("-" * 60)
print("Country & Gender wise Bank's Contribution")
print("-" * 60)
print(dCountryGen)

clog.logr('15.dCountryGen' + var + '.csv', Ind, dCountryGen, subdir)

###############################################################
###### End Of Country & Gender wise Bank's Contribution ######
###############################################################

Data Point – 2:

##############################################################
#### Country & Job wise Bank's Contribution #####
##############################################################

dfCountryJob = df_rowlvl[['Region', 'Job Classification', 'BankContribution']]

grouped_CJ = dfCountryJob.groupby(['Region', 'Job Classification'])
dCountryJob = grouped_CJ.aggregate(np.sum)

print("-" * 60)
print("Country & Job wise Bank's Contribution")
print("-" * 60)
print(dCountryJob)

clog.logr('16.dCountryJob' + var + '.csv', Ind, dCountryJob, subdir)

###############################################################
###### End Of Country & Job wise Bank's Contribution ######
###############################################################

Data Point – 3:

##############################################################
#### Country & Age wise Savings & Bank's Contribution #####
##############################################################

dfCountryAge = df_rowlvl[['Region', 'StartAgeRange', 'EndAgeRange', 'Balance', 'BankContribution']]
dfCountryAge['SavingsAmount'] = dfCountryAge.apply(lambda row: self.getSavingsAmount(row), axis=1)

grouped_CA = dfCountryAge.groupby(['Region', 'StartAgeRange', 'EndAgeRange'])
dCountryAge = grouped_CA.aggregate(np.sum)

print("-" * 60)
print("Country & Job wise Bank's Contribution")
print("-" * 60)
print(dCountryAge)

clog.logr('17.dCountryAge' + var + '.csv', Ind, dCountryAge, subdir)

##############################################################
#### End Of Country & Age wise Savings & Bank's #####
#### Contribution #####
##############################################################

Finally, these datasets will invoke an excel generator function to capture all these data into different sheets & beautify the report are as follows –

##############################################################
##### Writing to Excel File with Different Tabular Sheet #####
##############################################################
dfs = [dCountryGen, dCountryJob, dCountryAge]
sheets = ['Country-Gender-Stats', 'Country-Job-Stats', 'Country-Age-Stats']

x = self.dfs_tabs(dfs, sheets, report_path+tgtFileName + var + '.xlsx')

##############################################################
##### End Of Excel Sheet Writing #####
##############################################################

Key snippets from this function –

writer = p.ExcelWriter(file_name, engine='xlsxwriter')

This step will initiate the excel engine.

for dataframe, sheet in zip(df_list, sheet_list):
number_rows = int(dataframe.shape[0])
number_cols = int(dataframe.shape[1])

In this step, the application will unpack one by one sheet & produce the result into excel.

if cnt == 0:
dataframe.to_excel(writer, sheet_name=sheet, startrow=7, startcol=5)
else:
dataframe.to_excel(writer, sheet_name=sheet, startrow=5, startcol=0)

In this step, this will create the data starting from row 7 into the first sheet, whereas the remaining two sheets will capture data from row 5.

worksheet.set_column('A:E', 4)
worksheet.set_column('F:F', 20)
worksheet.set_column('G:G', 10)
worksheet.set_column('H:J', 20)

This will set the length of these columns.

# Insert an Image
worksheet.insert_image('E1', 'Logo.png', {'x_scale':0.6, 'y_scale':0.8})

In this case, the application will insert my blog logo on top of every page of this excel.

# Add a number format for cells with money.
money_fmt = workbook.add_format({'num_format': '$#,##0', 'border': 1})
worksheet.set_column('H:H', 20, money_fmt)

Also, for the column with monetary information, it will generate a specific format.

# Define our range for color formatting
color_range = "F9:F{}".format(number_rows * 2 + 1)

# Add a format. Red fill with the dark red text
red_format = workbook.add_format({'bg_color':'#FEC7CE', 'font_color':'#0E0E08', 'border':1})

# Add a format. Green fill with the dark green text
green_format = workbook.add_format({'bg_color': '#D0FCA4', 'font_color': '#0E0E08', 'border': 1})

# Add a format. Cyan fill with the dark green text
mid_format = workbook.add_format({'bg_color': '#6FC2D8', 'font_color': '#0E0E08', 'border': 1})

# Add a format. Other fill with the dark green text
oth_format = workbook.add_format({'bg_color': '#AFC2D8', 'font_color': '#0E0E08', 'border': 1})

worksheet.conditional_format(color_range, {'type':'cell',
'criteria':'equal to',
'value':'"England"',
'format': green_format})

worksheet.conditional_format(color_range, {'type': 'cell',
'criteria': 'equal to',
'value': '"Northern Ireland"',
'format': mid_format})

worksheet.conditional_format(color_range, {'type': 'cell',
'criteria': 'equal to',
'value': '"Scotland"',
'format': red_format})

worksheet.conditional_format(color_range, {'type': 'cell',
'criteria': 'equal to',
'value': '"Wales"',
'format': oth_format})

In this step, the application will color-code individual start cell to highlight specific category for better decision making visually.

4. callPivotLookUp.py (This script will call the main pivot script & process the data as per business requirement. Hence, the name comes into the picture.)

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#####################################################
### Objective: Purpose of this Library is to call ###
### the parse_and_write_csv method to produce the ###
### tokenized columns based on the look-up file.  ###
###                                               ###
### Arguments are as follows:                     ###
### Source File, Target File & Lookup Files.      ###
###                                               ###
#####################################################

import clsPivotLookUp as ct
from clsParam import clsParam as cf
import sys
import pandas as p
import clsLookUpDataRead as cl

def main():
    print("Calling the custom Package..")

    cnt_lkp = 0

    try:
        #Default Look up table
        Lkp_Filename = cf.config['LKP_FILE']

        # Adding New DB Table for Lookup
        x = cl.clsLookUpDataRead(Lkp_Filename)
        df_lkpF = x.ReadTable()

        cnt_lkp = df_lkpF.shape[0]

        if cnt_lkp > 0:
            df_lkpF_copy = df_lkpF.copy()

            # Getting all the unique file names
            df_list_F1 = list(df_lkpF_copy['TableName'].drop_duplicates())

            # File list which has Tokenization
            df_lkpF_Int = df_lkpF[(df_lkpF['Group'].str.len() >= 1)]
            df_list_F2 = list(df_lkpF_Int['TableName'].drop_duplicates())

            for i in df_list_F1:
                if i in df_list_F2:
                    try:
                        inputFile = i

                        print("*"*30)
                        print("Reading from " + inputFile + ".csv")
                        print("*" * 30)

                        srcFileName = inputFile
                        tarFileName = srcFileName + '_processed'

                        x = ct.clsPivotLookUp(srcFileName, tarFileName, df_lkpF)

                        ret_val = x.parse_and_write_csv()

                        if ret_val == 0:
                            print("Writing to file -> (" + tarFileName + ".csv) Status: ", ret_val)
                        else:
                            if ret_val == 5:
                                print("File IO Error! Please check your directory whether the file exists with data!")
                            else:
                                print("Data Processing Issue!")

                        print("*" * 30)
                        print("Operation done for " + srcFileName + "!")
                        print("*" *30)
                    except Exception as e:
                        x = str(e)
                        srcFileName = inputFile
                        print('Check the status of ' + srcFileName + ' ' + x)
                else:
                    pass
        else:
            print("No Matching Data to process!")
    except Exception as e:
        x = str(e)
        print(x)

        print("No Matching Data to process!")

if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()

 

And, the key snippet from here –

# Getting all the unique file names
df_list_F1 = list(df_lkpF_copy['TableName'].drop_duplicates())

# File list which has Tokenization
df_lkpF_Int = df_lkpF[(df_lkpF['Group'].str.len() >= 1)]
df_list_F2 = list(df_lkpF_Int['TableName'].drop_duplicates())

This will identify all the source files, which as similar kind of cases & process them one by one.

x = ct.clsPivotLookUp(srcFileName, tarFileName, df_lkpF)
ret_val = x.parse_and_write_csv()

if ret_val == 0:
print("Writing to file -> (" + tarFileName + ".csv) Status: ", ret_val)
else:
if ret_val == 5:
print("File IO Error! Please check your directory whether the file exists with data!")
else:
print("Data Processing Issue!")

This will call the main application class & based on the return result – it will capture the status of success or failure.

Let’s check the directory of both the Windows & MAC.

Windows:

Win_Dir

MAC:

MAC_Dir

Let’s check the run process –

Windows:

Win_Run_1

Win_Run_2

MAC:

MAC_Run_1

MAC_Run_2

Let’s see – how it looks in Excel –

Windows:

Win_Sheet_1

Win_Sheet_2

Win_Sheet_3

MAC:

MAC_Sheet_1

MAC_Sheet_2

MAC_Sheet_3

So, finally, we’ve achieved our target. 

Horray! We’ve done it! 😀

I hope you’ll like this effort. 

Wait for the next installment. Till then, Happy Avenging. 🙂

[Note: All the sample data are available in public domain for research & study.]

 

 

Password Validation Using Regular Expression In Teradata 14 & 15

Today, we’ll be checking one new area where we can implement regular expression to achieve the password validation without involving any kind of Macro, Stored-Proc.

 

Let’s consider the following conditions to be implemented –

 

1. Password should contain characters between 6 & 10.

2. One character should be digit.

3. One character should be in upper case letter.

4. There should be at least one special character.

 

Let’s check the Query & Output –

 

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select seq_no,
       passwd,
       regexp_similar(passwd,'^(?=^([[:graph:]]{6,10})$)(?=.*([[:upper:]]{1,}))(?=.*([[:digit:]]{1,})).*$') as reg_test
from scott.login_det
order by 1;


SEQ_NO	PASSWD	 REG_TEST
-----   -------  --------------
1	hoti         0
2	hotimla	     0
3	hotImla	     0
4	hot@imla     0
5	hoT@imla     0
6	hoT@iml9a    1
7	hoT@iml9a66  0

 

Similarly, you can add condition of lower case character if you want to make it more complex.

 

Hope, this will give you another way – to implement the same logic. 🙂

String Manipulation Advanced Using Teradata 14.0 Regular Expression

Today, I’ll show couple of very useful functions or logic implemented in Teradata using It’s Regular Expression.

There is two very popular demand comes from most of the Developer across different databases regarding the following two cases –

1. How to Split Comma Separated Values in each rows 

2. How to bind separate values in 1 row (Just opposite of Step 1)

2nd Options are very demanding as Cross platform database professional specially Oracle Developers looking for these kind of implementation as Oracle has directly built-in functions to do the same. Those functions are Listagg, wm_concat, group_concat.

Let’s check the solution –

Case 1,

Let’s create the table & prepare some data –

 

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CREATE MULTISET TABLE ETL_DATA.PARSE_STR
  (
     SEQ_NO       INTEGER,
     SRC_STR     VARCHAR(70)
  );
 
CREATE TABLE completed. 0 rows processed. Elapsed Time =  00:00:01.864

 

Let’s insert some data –

 

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INSERT INTO ETL_DATA.PARSE_STR VALUES(1,'RAM,TRIDIB,ANUPAM,BIRESWAR,SUJAY')
;INSERT INTO ETL_DATA.PARSE_STR VALUES(2,'TUNKAI,SAYAN,BABU,PAPU')
;INSERT INTO ETL_DATA.PARSE_STR VALUES(3,'IK,ATBIS,SAPMUNDA');

 

Let’s check the value –

 

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SEQ_NO          SRC_STR
------  ----------------------------------
    1   RAM,TRIDIB,ANUPAM,BIRESWAR,SUJAY
    2   TUNKAI,SAYAN,BABU,PAPU
    3   IK,ATBIS,SAPMUNDA

 

Fine, Now our objective will be split these comma separated values in each lines.

 

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SELECT b.SEQ_NO,
       regexp_substr(b.SRC_STR,'[^,]+',1,day_of_calendar) AS SRC_STR
FROM sys_calendar.calendar ,
     PARSE_STR b
WHERE day_of_calendar BETWEEN 1 AND  (LENGTH(b.SRC_STR) - LENGTH(regexp_replace(b.SRC_STR,'[^A-Z]+','',1,0,'i'))+1 )
ORDER BY 1,2;

 

And, let’s check the output –

 

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SEQ_NO  SRC_STR
-----   ----------------------
1       ANUPAM
1       BIRESWAR
1       RAM
1       SUJAY
1       TRIDIB
2       BABU
2       PAPU
2       SAYAN
2       TUNKAI
3       ATBIS
3       IK
3       SAPMUNDA

 

Gr8! I guess, result is coming as per my expectation. 🙂

 

Case 2(Subsitute Of Listagg, wm_concat, group_concat in Oracle),

This we’ve to do it in Two small Steps for better understanding & performance.

First, let us create another table –

 

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CREATE MULTISET TABLE ETL_DATA.WM_CONCAT_TAB
   (
      SEQ_NO   INTEGER,
      SRC_STR VARCHAR(20)
   );
    
CREATE TABLE completed. 0 rows processed. Elapsed Time =  00:00:01.230

 

Good. Now we’ll populate some data into this table. We’ll populate data from Step 1 as this will provide the exact data that we’re expecting as input test data for Case 2.

Let’s insert those data –

 

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INSERT INTO ETL_DATA.WM_CONCAT_TAB
SELECT b.SEQ_NO,
       regexp_substr(b.SRC_STR,'[^,]+',1,day_of_calendar) AS SRC_STR
FROM sys_calendar.calendar ,
     PARSE_STR b
WHERE day_of_calendar BETWEEN 1 AND  (LENGTH(b.SRC_STR) - LENGTH(regexp_replace(b.SRC_STR,'[^A-Z]+','',1,0,'i'))+1 );

 

Let’s check the data –

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SEQ_NO  SRC_STR
------  --------------------
1       ANUPAM
1       BIRESWAR
1       RAM
1       SUJAY
1       TRIDIB
2       BABU
2       PAPU
2       SAYAN
2       TUNKAI
3       ATBIS
3       IK
3       SAPMUNDA

 

As you know in TD we’ve significant restcriction regarding Hirarchical Queries & Recursive Queries. So, In this step we’ll build one relationship like employee & manager in popular employee table. So, if we have that kind of relation then we can easily establish & fit that in TD model.

Let’s create this intermediate table. In this case we’ll go for mapping between current rows with next rows. This is also very useful process. In Oracle, they have LEAD or LAG functions to achieve the same. But, here we’ve to work a little bit more to achive the same.

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CREATE MULTISET VOLATILE TABLE VT_SRC_ARRNG
AS
     (
            SELECT SEQ_NO,
                   SRC_STR,
                   MAX(SRC_STR) OVER(
                                        PARTITION BY SEQ_NO
                                        ORDER BY SEQ_NO, SRC_STR
                                        ROWS BETWEEN 1 FOLLOWING AND 1 FOLLOWING 
                                    ) AS PREV_SRC_STR,
                   COUNT(*)  OVER(
                                    PARTITION BY SEQ_NO
                                 ) AS MAX_RECUR_CNT
            FROM WM_CONCAT_TAB
      )
WITH DATA
ON COMMIT
PRESERVE ROWS;
 
CREATE TABLE completed. 0 rows processed. Elapsed Time =  00:00:01.102

 

Let’s look the output –

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SELECT *
FROM VT_SRC_ARRNG
ORDER BY 1,2;
 
 
 
 
SEQ_NO  SRC_STR  PREV_SRC_STR    MAX_RECUR_CNT
-----   -------  --------------- ---------------------
1       ANUPAM      BIRESWAR     5
1       BIRESWAR    RAM          5
1       RAM         SUJAY        5
1       SUJAY       TRIDIB       5
1       TRIDIB      ?            5
2       BABU        PAPU         4
2       PAPU        SAYAN        4
2       SAYAN       TUNKAI       4
2       TUNKAI      ?            4
3       ATBIS       IK           3
3       IK          SAPMUNDA     3
3       SAPMUNDA    ?            3

 

Fine. From the above VT we can see every Source String has one Previous Source String. Also, we’ve noted down that in each window of SEQ_NO how many levels are there by MAX_RECUR_CNT. We’ll use this column later.

Let’s move to the 2nd & final part –

Let’s aggregate the values based on SEQ_NO & club them with comma –

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WITH RECURSIVE WM_CONCAT(SEQ_NO, SRC_STR, PREV_SRC_STR, MAX_RECUR_CNT, LVL,  COMMA_SEP_STR)
AS
     (
        SELECT SEQ_NO,
               SRC_STR,
               PREV_SRC_STR,
               MAX_RECUR_CNT,
               1 AS LVL,
               CAST( '' AS VARCHAR(100)) AS COMMA_SEP_STR
       FROM VT_SRC_ARRNG
       WHERE  PREV_SRC_STR IS NULL
       UNION ALL
       SELECT  b.SEQ_NO,
               b.SRC_STR,
               b.PREV_SRC_STR,
               b.MAX_RECUR_CNT,
               c.LVL+1 AS LVL,
               c.COMMA_SEP_STR||b.SRC_STR||',' AS COMMA_SEP_STR
       FROM VT_SRC_ARRNG b,
               WM_CONCAT c
       WHERE c.SRC_STR =  b.PREV_SRC_STR
     )
SELECT k.SEQ_NO,
       k.AGGR_STR
FROM (               
    SELECT SEQ_NO,
           SRC_STR,
           LVL,
           MAX_RECUR_CNT,
           MIN(CASE
                 WHEN LVL = 1 THEN
                    SRC_STR
               ELSE
                  'ZZZZZ'
               END   ) OVER(
                                 PARTITION BY SEQ_NO
                                 ORDER BY LVL ASC
                           ) ROOT_SRC_STR,
           COMMA_SEP_STR||ROOT_SRC_STR AS AGGR_STR
    FROM WM_CONCAT
    )  k
WHERE k.LVL = k.MAX_RECUR_CNT
ORDER BY 1,2;

 

Let’s check the output –

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SEQ_NO  AGGR_STR
------- ---------------------------
1       SUJAY,RAM,BIRESWAR,ANUPAM,TRIDIB
2       SAYAN,PAPU,BABU,TUNKAI
3       IK,ATBIS,SAPMUNDA

 

I guess, We’ve done it. 😀

So, You can achieve the same without writing any UDF.

 

Ref Cursor In SQL

There are number occasions, which i personally met when many of my juniors are looking for solution of using ref-cursor in SQL based on some certain requirement and they want to use it in SQL that can be embed into some JAVA based applications. I’ve looked into that and able to produce one such useful case which can handy (Though i’ll prefer different approach than this.) when i require this kind of work.

satyaki>
satyaki>select * from v$version;

BANNER
----------------------------------------------------------------
Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Prod
PL/SQL Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production
CORE 10.2.0.1.0 Production
TNS for Linux: Version 10.2.0.1.0 - Production
NLSRTL Version 10.2.0.1.0 - Production

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00
satyaki>
satyaki>
satyaki>create table t_emp
2 as
3 select empno,
4 ename,
5 mgr,
6 sal
7 from emp
8 where 1=2;

Table created.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.05
satyaki>
satyaki>set lin 80
satyaki>
satyaki>desc t_emp;
Name Null? Type
----------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------
EMPNO NUMBER(4)
ENAME VARCHAR2(10)
MGR NUMBER(4)
SAL NUMBER(7,2)

satyaki>
satyaki>
satyaki>set lin 310
satyaki>
satyaki>select * from t_emp;

no rows selected

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00
satyaki>
satyaki>
satyaki>create or replace type etype as object
2 (
3 empno number,
4 ename varchar2(10),
5 mgr number,
6 sal number
7 );
8 /

Type created.

Elapsed: 00:00:01.03
satyaki>
satyaki>create or replace type t_etype as table of etype;
2 /

Type created.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.02
satyaki>
satyaki>create or replace function get_dept_emps(p_deptno in number)
2 return sys_refcursor
3 is
4 v_rc sys_refcursor;
5 begin
6 open v_rc for 'select empno, ename, mgr, sal from emp where deptno = :deptno' using p_deptno;
7 return v_rc;
8 end;
9 /

Function created.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.05
satyaki>
satyaki>
satyaki>create or replace function fetch_emps(deptno in number := null)
2 return t_etype
3 is
4 v_emptype t_etype := t_etype(); -- Declare a local table structure and initialize it
5 v_cnt number := 0;
6 v_rc sys_refcursor;
7 v_empno number;
8 v_ename varchar2(10);
9 v_mgr number;
10 v_sal number;
11 begin
12 v_rc := get_dept_emps(deptno);
13 loop
14 fetch v_rc into v_empno, v_ename, v_mgr, v_sal;
15 exit when v_rc%NOTFOUND;
16 v_emptype.extend;
17 v_cnt := v_cnt + 1;
18 v_emptype(v_cnt) := etype(v_empno, v_ename, v_mgr, v_sal);
19 end loop;
20 close v_rc;
21 return v_emptype;
22 end;
23 /

Function created.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.06
satyaki>
satyaki>
satyaki>select * from t_emp;

no rows selected

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00
satyaki>
satyaki>
satyaki>
satyaki>select * from t_emp;

no rows selected

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00
satyaki>
satyaki>
satyaki>insert into t_emp
2 select *
3 from table(fetch_emps(30));

4 rows created.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.02
satyaki>
satyaki>select * from t_emp;

EMPNO ENAME MGR SAL
---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
7654 MARTIN 7698 1815
7844 TURNER 7698 2178
7900 JAMES 7698 1379.4
7599 BILLY 7566 4500

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00
satyaki>
satyaki>commit;

Commit complete.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00
satyaki>